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Macleans

John Paul II Challenged Tyranny

THERE WERE NO INQUISITIONS, no holy crusades, no emperors kneeling in the snow. But when John Paul II took the stage in Warsaw on a sunny day in June 1979, he was challenging an empire as surely as medieval pontiffs grappled with the secular powers of their age.

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Seth

​Seth (born Gregory Gallant), cartoonist, visual artist (born 16 September 1962 in Clinton, ON).

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Canadian Film History: 1939 to 1973

Filmmaking is a powerful form of cultural and artistic expression, as well as a highly profitable commercial enterprise. From a practical standpoint, filmmaking is a business involving large sums of money and a complex division of labour. This labour is involved, roughly speaking, in three sectors: production, distributionand exhibition. The history of the Canadian film industry has been one of sporadic achievement accomplished in isolation against great odds. Canadian cinema has existed within an environment where access to capital for production, to the marketplace for distribution and to theatres for exhibition has been extremely difficult. The Canadian film industry, particularly in English Canada, has struggled against the Hollywood entertainment monopoly for the attention of an audience that remains largely indifferent toward the domestic industry. The major distribution and exhibition outlets in Canada have been owned and controlled by foreign interests. The lack of domestic production throughout much of the industry’s history can only be understood against this economic backdrop.

This article is one of four that surveys the history of the film industry in Canada. The entire series includes: Canadian Film History: 1896 to 1938; Canadian Film History: 1939 to 1973; Canadian Film History: 1974 to Present; Canadian Film History: Regional Cinema and Auteurs, 1980 to Present.

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Canadian Film History: 1974 to Present

Filmmaking is a powerful form of cultural and artistic expression, as well as a highly profitable commercial enterprise. From a practical standpoint, filmmaking is a business involving large sums of money and a complex division of labour. This labour is involved, roughly speaking, in three sectors: production, distribution and exhibition. The history of the Canadian film industry has been one of sporadic achievement accomplished in isolation against great odds. Canadian cinema has existed within an environment where access to capital for production, to the marketplace for distribution and to theatres for exhibition has been extremely difficult. The Canadian film industry, particularly in English Canada, has struggled against the Hollywood entertainment monopoly for the attention of an audience that remains largely indifferent toward the domestic industry. The major distribution and exhibition outlets in Canada have been owned and controlled by foreign interests. The lack of domestic production throughout much of the industry’s history can only be understood against this economic backdrop.

This article is one of four that surveys the history of the film industry in Canada. The entire series includes: Canadian Film History: 1896 to 1938; Canadian Film History: 1939 to 1973; Canadian Film History: 1974 to Present; Canadian Film History: Notable Films and Filmmakers 1980 to Present.

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Ronald Albert Martin

Ron Martin, painter (b at London, Ont 28 April 1943). Ron Martin studied at H.B. Beal Secondary School in London, Ont, began working in a studio shared with Murrary FAVRO in 1964, and had his first solo exhibition in Jack Pollock's gallery in Toronto in 1965.

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Ken Gass

Ken Gass, director, playwright, producer (born at Abbotsford, BC 10 Sept 1945). Ken Gass is one of the key figures in the development of Canadian theatre.

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Rodney Joseph MacDonald

Rodney MacDonald's political career began in 1999 when he secured the Progressive Conservative nomination in his home riding of Inverness. In the previous election, PC candidate Randy MacDonald had run a poor third behind Liberal victor Charles MacDonald.

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Denis Héroux

Denis Héroux, film director, producer (born 15 July 1940 in Montréal, Qc; died 10 December 2015 in Montréal).

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Josiah Henson

Josiah Henson, spiritual leader, author, founder of the Black community settlement at Dawn, Canada West (born 15 June 1789 in Charles County, Maryland; died 5 May 1883 in Dresden, ON). Born enslaved, Henson escaped to Upper Canada in 1830.

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Black Enslavement in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

The practice of slavery was introduced by colonists in New France in the early 1600s. The practice was continued after the British took control of New France in 1760 (see British North America.) For about two hundred years, thousands of Indigenous and Black African people were bought, sold, traded and inherited like property in early Canada. Slavery was abolished (made illegal) throughout British North America in 1834.

(This article is a plain-language summary of slavery in Canada. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry on Black Enslavement in Canada.)

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Loyalists in Canada

Loyalists were American colonists, of different ethnic backgrounds, who supported the British cause during the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). Tens of thousands of Loyalists migrated to British North America during and after the war. This boosted the population, led to the creation of Upper Canada and New Brunswick, and heavily influenced the politics and culture of what would become Canada.

(This is the full-length entry about Loyalists in Canada. For a plain-language summary, please see Loyalists in Canada (Plain-Language Summary).)

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Max Chancy

Community leader, philosophy professor, educator and political activist (born 9 May 1928 in Jacmel, Haiti; died 25 March 2002 in Haiti). He played an active role in founding the Maison d’Haïti, an organization that continues to play an important role in Montreal’s Haitian community. Chancy also worked to improve Quebec’s education system.

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Loyalists in Canada (Plain-Language Summary)

Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to Britain during the American Revolution (1775–83). Tens of thousands of Loyalists migrated to British North America. Most of them went to the Maritime provinces. The Loyalists left a long-lasting legacy on Canada. They influenced politics and culture in what would become Canada.

(This article is a plain-language summary of Loyalists. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry, Loyalists in Canada.)

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Émile Benoit

Émile (Joseph) Benoit. Fiddler, composer, storyteller, b Black Duck Rock, Port au Port peninsula, Nfld, 24 Mar 1913, d Stephenville, Nfld, 3 Sep 1992; honorary LLD (Memorial 1988). He began playing the violin at 12 and first performed publicly at 16.

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Barbara Amiel

Barbara Amiel, journalist and Lady Black of Crossharbour (b at Hertfordshire, Eng 1940). Barbara Amiel immigrated to Hamilton, Ontario, with her mother in 1952 where at the age of 14 she won first prize in a Hamilton Spectator essay contest.

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Thoreau MacDonald

Thoreau MacDonald, illustrator, designer, painter (b at Toronto 21 Apr 1901; d at Toronto 30 May 1989). Thoreau MacDonald was self-taught but worked with his father, J.E.H. MACDONALD. Colour blindness forced him to work mainly in black and white.

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Contemporary Indigenous Art in Canada

Contemporary Indigenous art is that which has been produced by Indigenous peoples between around 1945 to the present. Since that time, two major schools of Indigenous art have dominated the contemporary scene in Canada:  Northwest Coast Indigenous Art and the Woodlands school of Legend Painters. As well, a more widely scattered group of artists work independently in the context of mainstream Western artand may be described as internationalist in scope and intent.

Contemporary Inuit art has evolved in parallel with contemporary Indigenous art, producing celebrated artists like Zacharias Kunuk and Annie Pootoogook.

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Victor Schultz

Victor Schultz. Violinist, b Winnipeg 3 Jun 1959. He began his musical studies in Winnipeg at seven with Jeanette and Marilyn Slipetz, and was a pupil of Francis Chaplin 1969-71.

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Wade Hemsworth

Albert Wade Hemsworth, draftsman, graphic artist, singer, songwriter (born 23 October 1916 in Brantford, ON; died 19 January 2002 in Montréal, QC). The composer of evocative songs celebrating Canadiana and the northern forests, draftsman Wade Hemsworth turned his folk music hobby into a lasting national legacy. Iconic compositions such as “The Black Fly Song” and “The Log Driver’s Waltz” made Hemsworth an elder statesman of Canadian folk music throughout the second half of the 20th century. Several of his songs gained wide popularity through their use in National Film Board productions. “The Black Fly Song” was featured in Christopher Hinton’s Oscar-nominated animated short Blackfly (1991) and inducted into the Canadian Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2003.

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Brian Moore

Brian Moore, writer, journalist (b at Belfast, N Ire 25 Aug 1921; d at Malibu, Cal 10 Jan 1999). Twice winner of the Governor General's Award for fiction, Brian Moore was one of the most accomplished and venturesome of 20th-century novelists.