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Order-in-Council P.C. 1911-1324 — the Proposed Ban on Black Immigration to Canada

Order-in-Council P.C. 1324 was approved on 12 August 1911 by the Cabinet of Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier. The purpose of the order was to ban Black persons from entering Canada for a period of one year because, it read, “the Negro race…is deemed unsuitable to the climate and requirements of Canada.” The order-in-council was the culmination of what researcher R. Bruce Shepard has called Canada’s “campaign of diplomatic racism.” Though the order never became law, the actions of government officials made it clear that Black immigrants were not wanted in Canada (see Immigration).

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Queen Victoria

Victoria, queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India (born 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace, London; died 22 January 1901 at Osborne House, Isle of Wight).

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Siksikáí’powahsin: Blackfoot Language

Siksikáí’powahsin (commonly referred to as the Blackfoot language) is an Algonquian language spoken by four Blackfoot nations: the Siksiká (Blackfoot), Aapátohsipikani (North Piikani), Aamsskáápipikani (South Piikani) and Kainai (Blood). While there are some dialectal differences between these groups, speakers can generally understand one another. Blackfoot is an endangered language; since the 1960s, the number of new speakers has significantly decreased. The development of language programs and resources in Canada and the United States seek to preserve the language and promote it to new speakers.

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Regina Seiden

Like other Montréal artists such as Prudence Heward, Regina Seiden specialized in portraits of women, including representations of immigrants to Canada. Seiden stopped painting soon after her marriage to German-Jewish painter Eric Goldberg (1890–1969) to dedicate herself to their relationship and Goldberg’s career. After Goldberg died, Seiden started to paint again but never regained the momentum of her early years. Despite her brief career, Regina Seiden is now recognized as an important Montréal artist of the early 20th century who studied alongside members of the Beaver Hall Group.

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Christine Sinclair

Christine Sinclair, OC, soccer player (born 12 June 1983 in Burnaby, BC). Soccer player Christine Sinclair has been named Canadian Player of the Year 14 times. She has scored more international goals (187) and more Olympic goals (12) than any other player in the world. After twice being named the top women’s college soccer player in the United Sates and winning two NCAA championships, Sinclair led the Canadian women’s team to three World Cups (2011, 2015, 2019) and four Olympic Summer Games (Beijing 2008, London 2012, Rio 2016, Tokyo 2020). The team won back-to-back Olympic bronze medals in 2012 and 2016 before winning gold in Tokyo. Sinclair received the Bobbie Rosenfeld Award as Canada’s female athlete of the year in 2012 and 2020 and was named Canada Soccer Player of the Decade in 2019. The first soccer player to win the Lou Marsh Trophy as Canada’s athlete of the year, she has been inducted into Canada’s Walk of Fame and is an Officer of the Order of Canada.

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Thomas Greenway

Thomas Greenway, merchant, farmer, land speculator, politician, premier of Manitoba (b at Kilkhampton, Eng 25 Mar 1838; d at Ottawa 30 Oct 1908). Instrumental in the formation of the Liberal Party of Manitoba, Greenway was its first leader and premier of Manitoba 1888-1900.

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Akeeaktashuk

Akeeaktashuk, sea hunter, sculptor, storyteller (b at Hudson Bay, near Inukjuak River, Qué 1898; d at Craig Harbour, NWT 1954). Akeeaktashuk was a jolly, robust and outgoing man with an astonishing talent for observing and keenly portraying humans, animals and birds in stone and ivory.

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Arthur Sturgis Hardy

Arthur Sturgis Hardy, lawyer and politician, premier of Ontario 1896-99 (b at Mount Pleasant, near Brantford, Ont 14 Dec 1837; d at Toronto 13 June 1901). After a promising early career as a lawyer and city solicitor in

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Robert Terrill Rundle

Robert Terrill Rundle, Methodist missionary and circuit clergyman (b at Mylor, Eng, 11 June 1811; d at Garstang, Eng, 4 Feb 1896). Sent as a Methodist missionary to the Saskatchewan country in 1840, he arrived at Fort Edmonton on 17 Oct 1840.

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Lloyd Powell

Lloyd (Ioan) Powell. Pianist, teacher, b Bridgenorth, Shropshire, of Welsh parents, 22 Aug 1888, d Vancouver 25 Mar 1975. At 10 he entered the RCM and later he studied in Berlin and (with Busoni) in Basel.

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Ovilu Tunnillie

Ovilu Tunnillie, sculptor (b at Cape Dorset, NWT 20 Dec 1949). Ovilu comes from an artistic Cape Dorset family; her parents were the noted artists Toonoo and Sheokjuke.

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William Pearly Oliver

William Pearly Oliver, CM, minister, army chaplain and community organizer (born 11 February 1912 in Wolfville, Nova Scotia; died 26 May 1989 in Lucasville). Oliver was a social activist, educator and minister. He cofounded the Nova Scotia Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NSAACP) and the Black United Front (BUF). He was also instrumental in the creation of the Black Cultural Society and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia.

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Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye, military officer, farmer, fur trader, explorer (born at Trois-Rivières, Quebec 17 November 1685; died at Montreal 5 December 1749). The expeditions organized by La Vérendrye and spearheaded by his sons were the first to open the country from Lake Superior to the lower Saskatchewan River and the Missouri River to the French fur trade. La Vérendrye is often portrayed as emblematic of the French-Canadianvoyageur and of French Manitoba in particular.

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Os-Ke-Non-Ton

Os-Ke-Non-Ton (also written Oskenonton, meaning deer in the Mohawk language, also known as “Running Deer”), baritone, actor, spiritual leader (né Louie Deer c. 1888 in Caughnawaga [now Kahnawá:ke], QC; died c. 1955 in Lily Dale, NY). Os-Ke-Non-Ton was a celebrated singer and performer who showcased his culture across the globe. He also worked as a healer at a spiritual centre in Lily Dale until his death.