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Manufacturing in Canada

Manufacturing is a critical component of Canada’s economy. The production, sale and distribution of finished products contribute to consumer and labour markets, and secure Canada’s position as an economic leader among developed nations. Major, medium-sized and small manufacturers produce goods used by Canadians and contribute to the revenue gained from the export of goods to other countries. Since the early 2000s, the manufacturing sector in Canada has declined significantly in response to changes in the global economy and fewer regulatory controls over Canadian products (see Free Trade; Globalization). The composition and structure of the Canadian manufacturing industry is transitioning in response to these changes, aiming to produce new goods that are in greater demand.

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Human Resource Management

Workplace problems are constantly changing, as is the workplace itself, and change is perhaps faster today than ever before. Thus employer-employee relationships, whether individual or collective, are in perpetual evolution.

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Chartered Banks in Canada

Chartered banks, sometimes known as commercial banks, are public corporations that are licensed by the federal government to operate a banking business within Canada. By issuing these licenses (or charters), the Canadian government regulates and controls the country’s economy by influencing the amount, availability and distribution of money, and the terms or cost of accessing and distributing that money (interest rates). Chartered banks are regulated by the federal Bank Act and supervised by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions. Chartered banks in Canada accept deposits from the public and extend loans (such as mortgages) for personal, commercial, and other purposes. Banks also own and operate trust companies, securities dealers and insurance companies and offer such services as investment banking, international banking and more.

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Canadair Challenger

Canadair Challenger, corporate executive aircraft developed and built in Canada. Exhaustive testing resulted in an advanced wing design, broad body and quiet, efficient engines. It carries up to 19 passengers at a normal cruise speed of 819 km/h.

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Caisse populaire

 The caisse populaire was established in 1900 as a co-operative savings and loan company with nonfixed capital and limited liability in Lévis, Québec, by Alphonse DESJARDINS, a journalist and French-language stenographer in the House of Commons.

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Insurance

Insurance can be defined as an agreement under which some or all economic losses are transferred to an insurer who, for a premium, promises to compensate the insured for the losses resulting from specified risks (see INJURY AND PREVENTION) during the term of the agreement.

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Fraser River Gold Rush

In 1858, around 30,000 gold seekers flooded the banks of the Fraser River from Hope to just north of Lillooet in British Columbia’s first significant gold rush. Although it dissipated by the mid-1860s, the Fraser River Gold Rush had a significant impact on the area’s Indigenous peoples and resulted in the Fraser Canyon War. Fears that the massive influx of American miners would lead the United States to annex the non-sovereign British territory known as New Caledonia also resulted in the founding of British Columbia as a colony on 2 August 1858 (see The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia). By the mid-1860s, the Fraser Rush collapsed, and British Columbia sank into a recession.

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Footwear Industry

Footwear industry, sector of Canada's MANUFACTURING industries that produces footwear to meet various needs, including specialized industrial footwear, functional footwear, cold-weather footwear, slippers, and dress, casual and athletic shoes for men, women and children.

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Small Presses in French

Small publishing houses are closely linked to the birth and growth of distinct Québec literature. Living on the fringe of the big houses (themselves dependent on the educational market), they publish and thus help assure the survival of certain types of more marginal material and ideas.

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Canadian National Railway (CN)

Canadian National Railway Company, incorporated 6 June 1919, is the longest railway system in North America, controlling more than 31,000 km of track in Canada and the United States. It is the only transcontinental rail network in North America, connecting to three coasts: Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico. Known as Canadian National (CN), the former Crown corporation expanded its holdings to include marine operations, hotels, telecommunications and resource industries. However, the core of CN was still its railway system, which had its origins in the amalgamation of five financially troubled railways during the years 1917–23: the Grand Trunk and its subsidiary, the Grand Trunk Pacific; the Intercolonial; the Canadian Northern; and the National Transcontinental. In 1995, CN was sold to private investors. CN is primarily a rail freight company and transports approximately $250 billion worth of goods annually. In 2016, it earned over $12 billion in revenue and employed over 22,000 people in Canada and the US.

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MacMillan Bloedel Limited

MacMillan Bloedel Limited, with head offices in Vancouver, is Canada's largest forest-products company. It began in 1909 as the Powell River Paper Company Ltd, and it was reorganized as the Powell River Co in 1911.

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Lottery

Lottery a centuries-old concept, is an arrangement for distributing prizes by lot, chance or mixed chance and skill.

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Megaprojects

The Concept of MegaprojectsThe whole concept of "megaprojects" was thrown into question when the long list of megaprojects proposed in the 1970s was wiped out by the recession and the decline in energy prices during the 1980s. Megaprojects can only thrive in an atmosphere of certainty.

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Canning

Canning, NS, incorporated as a village in 1968, population (2011c), 798 (2006c). The Village of Canning is located 100 km northwest of Halifax.

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Cobourg and Peterborough Railway

One of the 2 earliest railway charters granted in Canada, the Cobourg Rail Road Co was incorporated in 1834 to build a railway from Cobourg northward to Peterborough across Rice Lake. The project was shelved until 1846, when it was revived as the Cobourg and Rice Lake Plank Road and Ferry Co. Samuel Gore built his plank road the 17 km to the lake, but it barely survived the first 2 winters.

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Noranda Inc

Its principal activities are in mining, manufacturing, forest products and oil and gas exploration, with its subsidiary, Noranda Sales Corporation Ltd, handling worldwide sales. Noranda has properties in Canada, the US and overseas, including South America and Australia.