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Lake Nipigon

Later posts were established by the NWC and HBC, but none grew into major settlements. With its limited population, unspoiled environment and abundant fish and wildlife, the area is ideal for outdoor recreation.

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Ocean

The interplay of these ocean waters with freshwater runoff from land creates the conditions that support large biological production on Canada's continental shelves and embayments (see COASTAL LANDFORM; DRAINAGE BASIN).

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Eastmain

Eastmain (or East Main) refers to the east shore of Hudson Bay, although in the 1680s the term was restricted to the vicinity of the Eastmain River. The corresponding reference to the west shore of Hudson Bay is the Westmain (West Main).

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Ellef Ringnes Island

Ellef Ringnes Island, 11 295 km2, is part of the SVERDRUP group that borders the Arctic Ocean. Most of the island consists of great thicknesses of sedimentary rock, except for an occurrence of the arctic coastal plain in the northwest corner.

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Fishing Islands

Fishing Islands, an archipelago of about 15 islets in Lake Huron (scattered in an area of 10 km2), lie off the west coast of the Bruce Peninsula in western Ontario between Chiefs Point and Pike Bay.

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Beechey Island

Beechey Island is on the north side of Lancaster Sound off the southwest corner of Devon Island at the entrance to Wellington Channel in the Arctic Archipelago.

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Fraser River Canyon

The Fraser River Canyon was formed during the Miocene period (22.9-5.33 million years ago) when the river cut down into the uplifting southern part of the Interior Plateau of British Columbia. The canyon characteristics of this

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Welland Canal

A lifeline of trade and commerce into the heart of North America, the first Welland Canal opened in 1829, an achievement attributed primarily to a St Catharines businessman, William Hamilton MERRITT.

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Escarpment

This is a steep or vertical cliff which usually extends over a considerable distance. The most common type of escarpment occurs where more resistant strata form a cap rock over easily eroded rocks. As EROSION takes place, the lower rock erodes more rapidly so that the cliff remains very steep.

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Fairweather Mountain

Fairweather Mountain, elevation 4663 m, is located at the southern end of the St Elias Range, on the BC-Alaska border, where a segment of the BC border juts southwest, nearly cutting off the Alaska Panhandle.

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Dubawnt Lake

Dubawnt Lake, 3833 km2, elevation 236 m, is situated in the southern part of mainland Nunavut, 350 km south of the Arctic Circle. Within the Precambrian SHIELD, the lake has irregular shorelines and numerous islands.

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Rivière Eastmain

The Rivière Eastmain, 756 km long, rises in the central part of Québec on the side of a low drainage divide from which streams flow west to James Bay.

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Rivière Dumoine

The Dumoine, 129 km long, rises in Lac Dumoine in southwest Québec and flows off the south edge of the Laurentian Highlands through a series of waterfalls, wild rapids and long chutes into the Ottawa River.

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Drainage Basin

A drainage basin is an area of land that contributes the water it receives as precipitation to a river or network of rivers.

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Cape Race

Cape Race, elevation 30-40 m, is the southeastern extremity of Newfoundland's AVALON PENINSULA. Named for its flat-topped (Portuguese, raso) cliffs, it has a barren appearance that creates a stark impression for transatlantic

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Esker

An esker is a ridge (Gaelic eiscir, "ridge") of gravel and sand emplaced during glacial melt by the deposition of sediments from meltwater rivers flowing on the ice (channel fills) or beneath a glacier (tunnel fills).

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Crown Point

Crown Point is a large peninsula strategically commanding the narrow passage of the southwestern portion of Lake CHAMPLAIN in upper New York State. It was initially the site of Fort Saint-Frédéric, built by the French in 1731 to defend French territory from English colonial invasion.

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Cumberland Sound

Cumberland Sound is a major inlet, 300 km long, with an average width of 65 km, in the east coast of BAFFIN ISLAND. Its steep sides rise over 2125 m to glacier-covered uplands.