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Escarpment

This is a steep or vertical cliff which usually extends over a considerable distance. The most common type of escarpment occurs where more resistant strata form a cap rock over easily eroded rocks. As EROSION takes place, the lower rock erodes more rapidly so that the cliff remains very steep.

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Notre Dame Bay

Notre Dame Bay, 6000 km 2 , is a large inlet of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast coast of Newfoundland. It contains many islands and its shores are indented by numerous coves and smaller embayments. One of Newfoundland's

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Niagara River

The Niagara River, 58 km long, issues from Lake Erie and flows north over Niagara Falls to Lake Ontario. The river’s drainage area is about 684,000 km2, and its average flow at Queenston is 5,885 m3/s. The Niagara River forms part of the border between Canada and the United States.

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Red Lake

Red Lake, Ontario, incorporated as a municipality in 1998, population 4,094 (2021 census), 4,107 (2016 census). The municipality of Red Lake is located in northwestern Ontario on the shore of Red Lake, 555 km northwest of Thunder Bay. The municipality is the result of the amalgamation of the former townships of Red Lake (incorporated in 1960) and Golden (established in 1985), and the unorganized territory governed by the Madsen local services board. Red Lake consists of six communities (Madsen, Red Lake, Balmertown, Cochenour, McKenzie Island and Starratt-Olsen) that sprang up around the area's gold mines.

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Land

Earth's surface experiences change driven by relief, sea level, hydroclimate and human activity. Extreme hydroclimatic events combined with human activity on steep slopes and/or adjacent to low-lying coasts generate natural hazards.

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Île-à-la-Crosse

Montréal-based trader Thomas FROBISHER built the first fur trade post in the area in 1776. Competing posts were set up by Alexander MACKENZIE in 1785 and the Hudson's Bay Company in 1799. From here the Athabasca brigades headed northwest. In 1846 Fathers LAFLÈCHE and TACHÉ established a mission.

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Grand River

From its source just south of Georgian Bay, the Grand River winds 266 km to Lake Erie, dropping 352 m along the way. Together with its major tributaries, the Speed, Nith, Conestogo and Eramosa rivers, it drains 6200 km2, the largest watershed in southern Ontario.

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Drainage Basin

A drainage basin is an area of land that contributes the water it receives as precipitation to a river or network of rivers.

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Gulf of St Lawrence

Gulf of St Lawrence, a large (250 000 km2), roughly triangular inland sea receiving on average 10 100 m3/s of fresh water from the St Lawrence River at its northwest apex, is connected to the Atlantic by the Strait of Belle Isle at the northeast and Cabot Strait at the southeast corners.

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St. Lawrence Seaway

The St Lawrence Seaway (Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of locks, canals and channels linking the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River with the Atlantic Ocean.

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North

In strictly geographic terms, the North refers to the immense hinterland of Canada that lies beyond the narrow strip of the country in which most Canadians live and work, but generally refers to the Northwest Territories, the Yukon and Nunavut.

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Churchill Falls

The project was undertaken by a subsidiary of British Newfoundland Corp Ltd (Brinco), and was at the time the largest civil engineering project ever undertaken in North America. Eighty strategically placed dikes pooled the vast waters of the Labrador Plateau in the Smallwood Reservoir.

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Fjord

In oceanographic terminology, fjords are estuaries, ie, semienclosed bodies of water in which seawater is measurably diluted by fresh water from land drainage.

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Lake Erie

Lake Erie, 25,700 km2 (including islands), of which 12,800 km2 lie in Canada, elevation 173.3 m; 388 km long, 92 km wide and 64 m deep. The shallowest of the five major Great Lakes (excluding Lake St. Clair), it receives most of its waters from Lake Huron via the Detroit River. Other major inflowing streams are the Maumee and Cuyahoga rivers in Ohio, and the Grand River in Ontario. The lake outflows through the Niagara River at Fort Erie, falling almost 100 m to Lake Ontario; more than 50 m of this drop occurs at Niagara Falls. It is also joined to Lake Ontario by the Welland Canal. (See also Largest Lakes in Canada.)

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Mountains

Mountains. As an inspiration for Canadian music, mountains have enjoyed limited popularity. Not unexpectedly the mountains most often referred to are the Rockies of Alberta and British Columbia.