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Macleans

Dollar Falls

In Quebec, they call it referendum fever. And of all those who fell into its grip last week, perhaps no one was more surprised than René Lepage, director of the community health clinic in the lower St. Lawrence River town of Matane.

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Exchange Rates

The dollar became the official monetary unit of the Province of Canada on 1 January 1858 and the official currency of Canada after Confederation.

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Commodity Trading

Commodity futures markets provide a means for the organized trading of contracts for the delivery of goods at a later date. Today, these include agricultural products, metals, forest products, petroleum products, interest rates and stocks.

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Imports

Imports consist of goods or services purchased from residents of foreign countries by Canadian residents. For 1996 these totalled $331 billion, or $1.7 billion more than all receipts from EXPORTS. The 3 major import divisions were merchandise of $233 billion (70.3%), services of $48 billion (14.

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Customs and Excise

Customs and excise, taxes on goods, are one of the world's oldest sources of government revenue. Customs duties are applied on imported products while excise duties and taxes are generally applied on goods of domestic manufacture, notably liquor and tobacco.

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Canada-US Auto Pact

The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965, better known as the Canada-US Auto Pact, led to the integration of the Canadian and US auto industries in a shared North American market. While it brought great benefits to Canada, it was eventually found to be contrary to international trade rules and was cancelled in 2001. By then it had accomplished its biggest goal — an integrated North American industry with a much stronger Canadian presence.

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Made Beaver

Hudson's Bay Company found it necessary to devise a unit of value that would accommodate Aboriginal people's bartering to European bookkeeping methods

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Gold Standard

The gold standard is a monetary system in which the value of the currency unit (the Canadian dollar, for example) is defined in relation to the value of gold.

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Agricultural Products Board

The Agricultural Products Board was established under the authority of the Agricultural Products Board Act. It was made up of the same members as the Agricultural Stabilization Board. Its broad authority was to buy, sell or import agricultural products.

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Barter

Barter is the exchange of one commodity or service for another without the use of money as a medium of exchange. A barter agreement (also called "countertrade") among countries calls for the exchange of stated amounts of goods.

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Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship, as a form of instruction in which a novice learns from a master of a craft or art, has existed for thousands of years.

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Canadian Wheat Board

The Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) was an agricultural marketing board headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Established in 1935, for much of its history it was the sole buyer and seller of Prairie wheat and barley destined for export from Canada or for human consumption in Canada. Referred to as the “single desk,” under this model it was illegal for farmers to sell their grain to anyone other than the CWB. Following a change in government policy, the single-desk model was discontinued in August 2012, and the CWB became a voluntary marketing organization. In July 2015, G3 Global Grain Group purchased a majority stake in the CWB, creating a new firm called G3 Canada Ltd. The company’s headquarters remain in Winnipeg.

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Retail Trade

There are 2 broad categories of retail-trade organization: retail chains, which operate 4 or more stores in the same kind of business under the same ownership, and independent retailers operating 1 to 3 stores.