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Mycorrhizae

Associations between PLANT roots and FUNGI are mycorrhizae and are thought to occur on roots of 95% of all SEED PLANTS. They are probably essential to the survival in nature of both partners. The plant derives an enhanced ability to absorb essential minerals and greater resistance to root diseases.

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Muskox

Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), shaggy, horned Artiodactyl of the cattle family (Bovidae); occurs naturally only in Canadian arctic tundra (mainland and Arctic Archipelago), Alaska and in Greenland.

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Navigation Acts

The Navigation Acts were a complex set of British laws dating from 1651 and 1660, regulating British and later imperial shipping and trade to foster economic and naval power.

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Prostitution

Prostitution is the practice of exchanging sexual services for money, or for other needs. Although prostitution itself has never been a crime in Canada, communicating and other activities relating to the exchange have been prohibited.

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Rebellion Losses Bill

Rebellion Losses Bill, modelled on Upper Canadian legislation, was introduced by Louis LaFontaine in Feb 1849 to compensate Lower Canadians whose property had been damaged during the Rebellions of 1837-38 (totalling approximately £100,000).

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North-West Territories Act

The North-West Territories Act, passed by the Liberal government of Alexander Mackenzie in April 1875, was an attempt to improve government administration and direct the development of the North-West Territories. Established in 1870, the North-West Territories was the first Canadian territory. It covered a vast area, stretching from Labrador to the Rocky Mountains and from the forty-ninth parallel to the Arctic Ocean.

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Northern Lights

Current theory states that the energy driving auroras is obtained from the solar wind, a gas composed primarily of protons and electrons, blowing away from the SUN at supersonic velocities of 300-1000 km/s (seePHYSICS).

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Oshawa Strike

Two of Hepburn's Cabinet colleagues who opposed his actions, Minister of Labour David Croll and Attorney General Arthur Roebuck, were persuaded to resign.

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Defence of Automatism

The term "automatism" describes unconscious, involuntary behaviour. Automatism is a "defence" to criminal charges in the following sense: to convict an accused the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt both a prohibited act and fault.

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Ozone Layer

The development of the ozone layer is thought to have been a significant factor permitting the evolution of life on Earth. Ozone is the main atmospheric gas that absorbs the biologically damaging part of the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation), known as UV-B (ultraviolet-biologically active).

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New Left

The New Left was an international political movement of the 1960s, mainly of youth and students, which originated in the "Ban the Bomb" movement of the late 1950s.

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National Income

National income, strictly, is a money measure of the incomes received or accruing to residents of a country as owners of the agents of production, during a specified period of time.

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Octopus

Octopus is the common name for all 8-armed cephalopod molluscs; it more properly refers to the largest genus in order Octopoda (over 100 species).

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Otter

 The river otter (Lutra canadensis) occurs throughout North America except in desert and arid tundra regions. In Canada it is scarce, except along the BC coast, where it is abundant and often wrongly identified as a sea otter.

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Nova Scotia 1714-84

Confirmed as British by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the peninsula of Nova Scotia was neglected until 1749 - a period of "phantom rule" and "counterfeit suzerainty.