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The Great Flag Debate

The long and often bitter debate over the new Canadian flag began in the House of Commons on 15 June 1964. It ended by closure on 15 December 1964. Feelings ran high among many English Canadians. Opposition leader John Diefenbaker demanded that the flag honour Canada’s “founding races” and feature the Union Jack. Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson insisted on a design that conveyed allegiance to Canada while avoiding colonial association. A prolonged, heated debate ensued. Historian Rick Archbold described it as “among the ugliest in the House of Commons history.” The new flag, designed by George Stanley with final touches by graphic artist Jacques Saint-Cyr, was approved on 15 December 1964 by a vote of 163 to 78. The royal proclamation was signed by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 January 1965. The national flag was officially unfurled on 15 February 1965.

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Société des Fils de la liberté

Founded in Montréal on 5 September 1837, the Société des Fils de la liberté was a paramilitary group affiliated with the Patriotes, formed in response to growing frustration among the Parti patriote and its supporters that political reform in Lower Canada was taking too long. Their aim was to support and protect the Patriotes. Borrowing their name from the American revolutionary secret society known as the Sons of Liberty, the group included some of the most important members of the party, including Louis-Joseph Papineau and Edmund Bailey O’Callaghan. In Montréal, the group was opposed by the English-speaking paramilitary group the Doric Club, which led to a violent confrontation on 6 November 1837. The group disbanded shortly afterwards and many of its members went on to participate in the Canadian Rebellion.

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Department of Finance

The Department of Finance Canada is the federal government's main engine of research, advice and analysis on national economic and financial affairs, including fiscal policy, debt management and taxation.

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Finance Act

Finance Act, August 1914, emergency measure ending Canada's GOLD STANDARD and giving the Department of Finance new powers.

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Flatworm

Flatworm (Platyhelminthes), phylum of soft, bilaterally symmetrical invertebrates. Flatworms vary in shape from leaflike to ribbonlike; size ranges from microscopic to over 15 m long (some parasitic forms).

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Entomology

Entomology is the branch of zoology dealing with the study of insects, although which organisms are included is open to interpretation.

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Educational Broadcasting

Educational broadcasting refers to TELEVISION PROGRAMMING and RADIO PROGRAMMING providing or related to courses of study. The term "educational" is also applied at times to other programs that are particularly enlightening, informative or intellectually stimulating.

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Elm

Elm (Ulmus), genus of trees of elm family (Ulmaceae), found only in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Technical Education

From its origins in manual training "shop" and industrial arts, technical education has consisted of practical and applied subject matter that reflects the practices of current society.

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Flax

Flax (Linum usitatissimum), annual plant belonging to the family of the same name (Linaceae). Flax is sown and harvested much like a spring cereal crop and matures at the same time as wheat.

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Earthworm

Earthworm, is a segmented worm of phylum Annelida, class Oligochaeta. The class comprises some 14 families, including Lumbricidae, to which the common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) belongs.

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Durham Report

In 1838, the British politician Lord Durham was sent to British North America to investigate the causes of the rebellions of 1837–38 in the colonies of Upper and Lower Canada. Durham's famous Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839) led to a series of reforms and changes. These included uniting the two Canadas into a single colony, the Province of Canada, in 1841. (See also: Act of Union.) The report also paved the way for responsible government. This was a critical step in the development of Canadian democracy. The report played an important role in the evolution of Canada’s political independence from Britain.

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Fencing

Fencing is a sport that involves duelling with a sword according to established rules.

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VIA Rail Canada Inc.

In 1981 VIA cancelled or reduced numerous routes in an attempt to make passenger service more efficient. Services in parts of the country were seriously affected and the Liberal government was widely criticized. A nonconfidence vote over the issue in October 1981 was won by the government.

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Economic History of Canada

The economic history of what is now Canada begins with the hunting, farming and trading societies of the Indigenous peoples. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, the economy has undergone a series of seismic shifts, marked by the early Atlantic fishery, the transcontinental fur trade, then rapid urbanization, industrialization and technological change. Although different industries have come and gone, Canada’s reliance on natural resources — from fur to timber to minerals to oil, and on export markets for these commodities, particularly the United States — has underpinned much of the economy through the centuries and does so still in many regions today.

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Duck

Waterfowl with short legs, webbed feet and narrow, pointed wings are known as ducks.