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Opting-Out

Opting-Out originated as a device by which one or more provinces choose not to participate in a federal-provincial shared cost program; instead the province receives direct payment (in cash or tax room) of funds which would have been spent there.

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Orchid

Calypso bulbosa has similar but smaller, delicate pink flowers. Some Spiranthes and Habenaria species have small, whitish, fragrant flowers in a spike. Two genera, Eburophyton (plant is white) and Corallorhiza (plant is yellow to purple), live on decaying vegetable matter.

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Pan-Indianism

Pan-Indianism is a movement of Aboriginal resistance to domination and assimilation and is characterized primarily by political and religious expression and solidarity. Key historical figures include Pontiac and Handsome Lake.

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Policing

IntroductionThe public police in Canada are armed paramilitary services charged with the general responsibility of social control.

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Polo

Polo was first played in Canada in 1878 by British garrison officers stationed in Halifax. The game was more widely played in western Canada, however, and by 1889 weekly matches were organized in Victoria between garrison teams and British naval officers.

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Pressure Group

A pressure group, also known as an interest group or lobby, is an organization formed by like-minded people who seek to influence PUBLIC POLICY to promote an interest. Pressure groups exist in all modern pluralist democracies and have sprung up on all sides. Some defend producer interests.

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Footwear Industry

Footwear industry, sector of Canada's MANUFACTURING industries that produces footwear to meet various needs, including specialized industrial footwear, functional footwear, cold-weather footwear, slippers, and dress, casual and athletic shoes for men, women and children.

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White Paper on Foreign Policy

A 6-volume review of foreign policy conducted 1968-70 by the Department of External Affairs (now FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE) with the involvement of many other departments and agencies, invited academics, business people and others.

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George Cross

The aerial bombing of centres of civilian population in Britain early in WWII gave rise to numerous acts of the most conspicuous bravery. In response, King George VI instituted a major decoration in 1940 for which civilians and members of the armed forces are eligible.

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Geranium

Geranium, annual, biennial or perennial plant of genus Geranium, family Geraniaceae, with opposite, palmate and often divided leaves.

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Radical Economics

Originally the word "radical" meant relentlessly seeking the root of a problem and not shrinking from the action that follows as a logical consequence of its findings. More popularly, it denotes a sharp departure from conventional, orthodox interpretations of reality.

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McCarter Nairne

They began by designing houses and small apartment buildings. A breakthrough was the 1924 commission for the six-storey Devonshire Apartments, which were situated on a prominent downtown site.