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Jewish Canadians

Unlike most immigrants to Canada, Jews did not come from a place where they were the majority cultural group. Jews were internationally dispersed at the time of the ancient Roman Empire and after unsuccessful revolts against it lost their sovereignty in their ancient homeland. Subsequently, Jews lived, sometimes for many centuries, as minorities in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. In the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS), 329,495 Canadians identified as Jewish when responding to the census question on religion, and 309,650 identified as being of Jewish ethnic origin (115,640 single and 194,010 multiple responses).

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Prestonian-class Frigates

The Prestonians were a group of 21 Second World War frigates reactivated by the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) in the 1950s for antisubmarine warfare (ASW). This was a stopgap measure to meet Canada’s North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) force goals until the purpose-built St Laurent-class destroyer escorts came into service. Although originally built as Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) vessels, the Prestonians had to be extensively modified to meet the more complex demands of Cold War ASW, which they performed until withdrawn in the mid-1960s.

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American Mastodon

The American mastodon (Mammut americanum) is an extinct species of proboscidean. Although they likely resembled mammoths and elephants in external appearance, American mastodons belong to the taxonomic family Mammutidae and mammoths and elephants to Elephantidae. The earliest record of the American mastodon dates to about 3.75 million years ago, and comes from south-central Washington in the United States. In Canada, fossil evidence of American mastodons is restricted to the latter portions of the Pleistocene epoch (2.68 million–10,000 years ago). American mastodons lived across much of Canada. Paleontologists have found fossils in Yukon, the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Later records of mastodons in Canada overlap in time with archaeological records of Indigenous people. However, while there is evidence that people hunted American mastodons at the Manis Site in Washington, to-date no similar evidence has been found in Canada. American mastodons went extinct around 10,000 years ago.

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Greater Short-Horned Lizard

The greater short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma hernandesi) is a small to medium sized lizard native to central North America. In Canada, the greater short-horned lizard is found in southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta. It is the only species of Phrynosoma that remains in Canada. A second species, the pygmy short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglasii), historically lived in southern British Columbia, but appears not to anymore. The greater short-horned lizard faces a number of threats, many poorly understood. Some of these threats include habitat loss and development, and changes to patterns of winter temperatures and snow cover.

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CH-124 Sea King

The Sea King entered service with the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) in 1963 as an all-weather shipborne helicopter to provide close antisubmarine warfare (ASW) protection for ships at sea. By the time it was retired from service 55 years later, in 2018, it had undergone a variety of modifications and role-changes. Throughout, it maintained its well-earned reputation as the workhorse of the fleet. Sea King helicopters were a critical element in nearly every naval operation at home and abroad.

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Redpath Sugar

Redpath Sugar Ltd. is a Canadian sugar refining company (see Sugar Industry). It is one of the oldest continuously operated companies in Canada. It is also the oldest sugar cane refining operation in Canada, having been established in Montreal in 1854. The company bears the name of its founder, John Redpath, whose company expanded considerably under the direction and leadership of his son, Peter Redpath, and his son-in-law, Sir George Alexander Drummond. In 2007, Redpath Sugar Ltd. became a subsidiary of American Sugar Refining (ASR Group). Redpath Sugar Ltd.’s primary production and refining operation is located on the Toronto waterfront.

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Canadian Citizenship

Canadian citizenship was first created in 1947 by the Canadian Citizenship Act. Today's version of the law says both Canadian-born and naturalized citizens are equally entitled to the rights of a citizen, and subject to the duties of a citizen. In 2014, the Strengthening Canadian Citizenship Act brought about the first significant amendments to the Citizenship Act since 1977. However, these changes were repealed or amended by legislation passed in 2017.

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Canada’s Temporary Foreign Worker Programs

Temporary foreign worker programs are regulated by the federal government and allow employers to hire foreign nationals on a temporary basis to fill gaps in their workforces. Each province and territory also has its own set of policies that affect the administration of the programs. Canada depends on thousands of migrant workers every year to bolster its economy and to support its agricultural, homecare, and other lower-wage sectors. In 2014, there were 567,077 migrant workers employed in Canada, with migrant farm workers making up 12 per cent of Canada’s agricultural workforce. A growing labour shortage is projected to increase, with a study by the Conference Board of Canada projecting 113,800 unfilled jobs by 2025.

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Constitution Act, 1982

The Constitution Act, 1982 is a landmark document in Canadian history. It achieved full independence for Canada by allowing the country to change its Constitution without approval from Britain. It also enshrined the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in Canada’s Constitution, the highest law of the land. The Act was passed after a fierce, 18-month political and legal struggle that dominated headlines and the agendas of every government in the country. (See Patriation of the Constitution.)

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Domestic Service (Caregiving) in Canada

Domestic work refers to all tasks performed within a household, specifically those related to housekeeping, childcare and personal services for adults. These traditionally unpaid household tasks can be assigned to a paid housekeeper (the term caregiver is preferred today). From the early days of New France, domestic work was considered a means for men and women to immigrate to the colony (see History of Labour Migration to Canada). In the 19th century, however, domestic service became a distinctly female occupation (see Women in the Labour Force). From the second half of the 19th century until the Second World War, in response to the growing need for labour in Canadian households, British emigration societies helped thousands of girls and women immigrate to Canada (see Immigration to Canada). In 1955, the Canadian government launched a domestic-worker recruitment program aimed at West Indian women (see West Indian Domestic Scheme). In 2014 the government lifted the requirement for immigrant caregivers to live with their employer to qualify for permanent residence — a requirement that put domestic workers in a vulnerable position. (See also Canadian Citizenship; Immigration Policy in Canada).

Click here for definitions of key terms used in this article.

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Centrosaurus

Centrosaurus (pronounced cen-troh-sore-us) is a genus of medium-sized, plant-eating, horned dinosaur. It lived between 76.5 and 75.3 million years ago in southern Alberta and southern Saskatchewan. Centrosaurus lived in herds, sometimes reaching hundreds to thousands of animals of all ages. In 1901, Lawrence Lambe discovered a partial Centrosaurus frill along the Red Deer River in Alberta, presumably in the area of modern day Dinosaur Provincial Park. In 1902, he named the specimen Monoclonius dawsoni but renamed it Centrosaurus apertus in 1904. This makes Centrosaurus one of the first ceratopsids (a type of horned dinosaur) and the first centrosaurine (a type of ceratopsid) discovered in Canada.

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Blanding's Turtle

The Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) is a medium-sized, freshwater turtle that is native to northeastern North America. In Canada, Blanding’s turtles are found throughout southern and central Ontario, in extreme southwestern Quebec, and in southern Nova Scotia. Blanding’s turtles are endangered throughout their range. The primary threats to the species in Canada include widespread mortality on roads and ongoing loss of wetland habitat.

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Taxation in Canada

Taxes are mandatory payments by individuals and corporations to government. They are levied to finance government services, redistribute income, and influence the behaviour of consumers and investors. The Constitution Act, 1867 gave Parliament unlimited taxing powers and restricted those of the provinces to mainly direct taxation (taxes on income and property, rather than on activities such as trade). Personal income tax and corporate taxes were introduced in 1917 to help finance the First World War (see Income Tax in Canada). The Canadian tax structure changed profoundly during the Second World War. By 1946, direct taxes accounted for more than 56 per cent of federal revenue. The federal government introduced a series of tax reforms between 1987 and 1991; this included the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). In 2009, the federal, provincial and municipal governments collected $585.8 billion in total tax revenues

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RCAF Women's Division

Members of the Women’s Division (WD) of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) were wartime pioneers. Thousands of young Canadian women volunteered to serve at home and abroad during the Second World War as part of the air force. By replacing men in aviation support roles, they lived up to their motto — "We Serve that Men May Fly” — and, through their record of service and sacrifice, ensured themselves a place in Canadian history.

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Suicide in Canada

This article contains sensitive material that may not be suitable for all audiences. To reach the Canada Suicide Prevention Service, contact 1-833-456-4566.

Suicide is the act of taking one’s own life voluntarily and intentionally. Suicide was decriminalized in Canada in 1972. Physician-assisted suicide was decriminalized in 2015. Suicide is among the leading causes of death in Canada, particularly among men. On average, approximately 4,000 Canadians die by suicide every year — about 11 suicides per 100,000 people in Canada. This rate is higher for men and among Indigenous communities. Suicide is usually the result of a combination of factors; these can include addiction and mental illness (especially depression), physical deterioration, financial difficulties, marriage breakdown and lack of social and medical support.

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Suicide among Indigenous Peoples in Canada

First Nations in Canada have suicide rates double that of the national average, and Inuit communities tend to have even higher rates. Suicide in these cases has multiple social and individual causes. To date, there are a number of emerging programs in suicide prevention by Indigenous organizations that attempt to integrate Indigenous knowledge with evidence-informed prevention approaches.

This article contains sensitive material that may not be suitable for all audiences.

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Conscription in Canada

Conscription is the compulsory enlistment or “call up” of citizens for military service. It is sometimes known as “the draft.” The federal government enacted conscription in both the First World War and the Second World War. Both instances created sharp divisions between English Canadians, who tended to support the practice, and French Canadians, who generally did not. Canada does not currently have mandatory military service. The Canadian Armed Forces are voluntary services.

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Military Service Act

The Military Service Act became law on 29 August 1917. It was a politically explosive and controversial law that bitterly divided the country along French-English lines. It made all male citizens aged 20 to 45 subject to conscription for military service, through the end of the First World War. The Act’s military value was questionable, but its political consequences were clear. It led to the creation of Prime Minister Borden’s Union Government and drove most of his French-Canadian supporters into opposition.