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Châtelaine

Châtelaine, founded Oct 1960 and published in Montréal by Maclean Hunter Ltée, now a part of the Rogers Communications media empire, is one of the largest French-language women's magazines in the world, with a total paid circulation of 193 127 in 1994.

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Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency, in social science, refers primarily to social acts of juveniles that are defined and evaluated as deviant or antisocial by legal or social norms and that are usually socially learned.

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Jesuit Relations

Jesuit Relations (Relations des jésuites), the voluminous annual documents sent from the Canadian mission of the Society of Jesus to its Paris office, 1632-72, compiled by missionaries in the field, edited by their Québec superior, and printed in France by Sébastien Cramoisy.

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Iron Ore

Its most important mineral forms are magnetite (Fe3O4, 72.4% Fe), hematite (Fe2O3, 69.9% Fe) and siderite (FeCO3, 48.29% Fe). In Brazil, some ore that contains practically no other minerals can grade as high as 68% Fe, but the crude ore mined in Canada grades between 30 and 44% Fe.

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Jansenism

Jansenism, a theological doctrine which urged greater personal holiness, espoused predestination and was linked to some extent with GALLICANISM.

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Ball Hockey

Ball hockey is a fast, skilful sport, with leagues operating in all Canadian provinces. The game traces its ancestry to the simple stick-and-ball games of the Middle Ages.

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Battle of Stoney Creek

The rather casual pace and attitude of the US forces provided an opportunity for the British. A local youth named Billy Green had gathered critical intelligence on the approaching US forces, including their location and disposition.

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Canadair Challenger

Canadair Challenger, corporate executive aircraft developed and built in Canada. Exhaustive testing resulted in an advanced wing design, broad body and quiet, efficient engines. It carries up to 19 passengers at a normal cruise speed of 819 km/h.

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Hockey Canada

Hockey Canada is the official governing body of hockey in Canada, representing the country as a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation.

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Canadian Congress of Labour

Canadian Congress of Labour, founded fall 1940 as a merger of the All-Canadian Congress of Labour and the Canadian section of the Congress of Industrial Organizations. For 16 years the CCL was in the forefront of Canadian union activity and organization.

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Canada Development Corporation

Canada Development Corporation, headquartered in Toronto, developed and maintained Canadian-controlled and -managed companies in the private sector. Created in 1971 through a special Act of Parliament, the CDC helped to widen the investment opportunities open to Canadians.

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Calumet

Calumet, from the Norman-French term for pipe or pipestem in early North American historical records, was a potent item of ritual magic in a Plains medicine bundle and an object of religious symbolism. The calumet was also the focus of tribal solidarity and power.

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Canada-US Auto Pact

The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965, better known as the Canada-US Auto Pact, led to the integration of the Canadian and US auto industries in a shared North American market. While it brought great benefits to Canada, it was eventually found to be contrary to international trade rules and was cancelled in 2001. By then it had accomplished its biggest goal — an integrated North American industry with a much stronger Canadian presence.

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Nickle Resolution

The Nickle Resolution, passed in 1919 by the House of Commons, directed that the practice of bestowing titles of honour by foreign governments on Canadians be discontinued. The policy was reaffirmed in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Lester B.

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Cadmium

Cadmium (Cd) is a soft, ductile, silvery white metal that melts at 320.9°C and is present in the earth's crust at 0.1-0.5 parts per million. The most common cadmium MINERAL, greenockite (CdS), is generally found in zinc-bearing ores and is recovered as a by-product during processing.