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Article

Cartography in Canada: 1600–1763

Mapping in Canada in the 1600s began with the work of Samuel de Champlain. He produced the first modern-looking map of Eastern Canada in 1613, and the most comprehensive of his maps in 1632. For much of the 1600s and early 1700s, the French were the primary cartographers of what would become Canada. Notable exceptions include the English’s mapping of the Arctic (see also Cartography in Canada: 1500s) and Henry Hudson and other’s work in mapping Hudson Bay. The Seven Years' War (1756–63) interrupted mapping activity in Canada.

Article

Calgary Stampede

The Calgary Exhibition and Stampede is a combined agricultural fair and rodeo. Other presentations such as manufacturing and home and garden exhibitions occur at the same time, as well as displays relating to Indigenous cultures, an evening stage show and a large midway with sideshows and rides. Every July the Stampede opens with a parade; the rodeo and other events continue for 10 days.

Article

Tahltan Bear Dog

The Tahltan (pronounced tall-tan) bear dog was one of five dog breeds recognized by the Canadian Kennel Club as uniquely Canadian (see also Dogs in Canada). Although the name of the breed suggests it was only kept by the Tahltan Nation of Northwestern British Columbia, the dog was common among other First Nations in the region, too. These included the Tlingit, Tagish, Kaska and Sekani. The Tahltan people referred to it as “our dog,” which gave the breed its name. Indigenous peoples used the Tahltan bear dog in sustenance hunting— primarily for bear— an activity in which it excelled. The breed went extinct in the in the 1970s or 80s.

Article

Frank Tomkins (Primary Source)

"I had four brothers during the war and of course every young person I guess wants to join up, especially when their brothers are gone."

See below for Mr. Tomkins' entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Dorothy M Jamieson (Primary Source)

"We were in France, and we were in Belgium. And to me, serving with those girls was the best thing that ever happened to me."

See below for Ms. Jamieson's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Jack Henry Hilton (Primary Source)

"We landed in France on a metal strip. I had a sniper bullet go across my head as I landed as I was taxing in and we slept in slit trenches and tents, ate bully beef and did our, we attacked the Germans."

See below for Mr. Hilton's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Ian Mair (Primary Source)

"I got up and at that time, a bomb fell down and I was wounded in three places, left leg broken, and the right shoulder, and the left wrist."

See below for Mr. Mair's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Royal Victoria Hospital

Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, is a teaching hospital affiliated with McGill University. Its original building on the southern slopes of Mount Royal is the premier Canadian illustration of pavilion-plan hospital architecture.

Article

Kenneth McClure Asham (Primary Source)

"The excerpt in English is not available at this time. Please refer to the excerpt in French."

See below for Mr. Asham's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Gordon Hendery (Primary Source)

"On the night of June the 5th, we gave them a hot meal because we knew it'd be the last one they'd have for a long time."

See below for Mr. Hendery's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Ida Ferguson (Primary Source)

"The excerpt in English is not available at this time. Please refer to the transcript in French."

See below for Ms. Ferguson's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Lewis (Louis) Chow (Primary Source)

"If you’re caught as a spy, they don’t take prisoner of war, they would just shoot you. Or use just sword. It was a dangerous job when you’re a secret agent."

See below for Mr. Chow's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Constance Gwendolyn Powys (Primary Source)

"The excerpt in English is not available at this time. Please refer to the transcript in French."

See below for Ms. Powys' entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Harold Harden (Primary Source)

"You see these ships being exploded through gunfire, that was quite an experience."

See below for Mr. Harden's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Lucien Simard (Primary Source)

"All along the Gaspé coast all the way to Newfoundland, you were in complete darkness. During the war, the houses located all the way down the Gaspé coast had to cover their windows. The submarines were torpedoing the ships only 5-10 miles offshore."

See below for Mr. Simard's entire testimony.


Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

Article

Gun Control in Canada

Gun control in Canada is governed by the Criminal Code, as well as the Firearms Act (1995) and related regulations. The Criminal Code lays out the criminal offences related to the misuse, storage, transportation, sale and possession of firearms; as well as consequent punishments. The Firearms Act regulates the manufacture, import/export, acquisition, possession, transfer, transportation, and storage of firearms in Canada. It lays out prohibitions and restrictions on various types of firearms, which are classified as either non-restricted, restricted, or prohibited. The Act also outlines the requirements for the licensing and registration of firearms in Canada. The Canadian Firearms Program (CFP), led by the RCMP, administers the Firearms Act. Fulfilment of the Canadian Firearms Safety Course and obtainment of a Possession and Acquisition Licence (PAL) are required to possess and use firearms in Canada.

Article

Indian Horse

Indian Horse (2012) is the sixth novel by Ojibwe author Richard Wagamese. Set in Northern Ontario in the late 1950s and early 1960s, it follows protagonist Saul Indian Horse as he uses his extraordinary talent for ice hockey to try and escape his traumatic residential school experience. He achieves moderate success as a hockey player but is unable to escape his “Indian” identity or the trauma from his past. Indian Horse was a finalist on CBC’s Canada Reads in 2013, where it won the People’s Choice award. It was also the winner of the 2013–14 First Nation Communities Read Selection and the Burt Award for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Literature from the Canadian Organization for Development through Education (CODE). In 2017, Indian Horse was adapted into an award-winning film by writer Dennis Foon and director Stephen S. Campanelli.

Article

Official Languages Act (1969)

​The Official Languages Act (1969) is the federal statute that made English and French the official languages of Canada. It requires all federal institutions to provide services in English or French on request. The Act was passed on the recommendation of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (established by Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson) and came into force on 7 September 1969. It created the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, which oversees its implementation.