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Deputy Minister

A deputy minister is generally an officer of the public service appointed as managerial and administrative head of a department or ministry of the federal or provincial governments.

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Exports

Exports are goods or services which a nation sells to other nations. During 1996 Canadian sales abroad amounted to $330 billion, consisting of $268 billion (or 81.2%) merchandise, $39 billion (or 11.8%) services and nearly $18 billion (or 5.4%) investment income.

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Tax Court of Canada

Tax Court of Canada, established 1983, is an independent body under the federal minister of justice. Its objective is to provide an easily accessible tribunal for the disposition of disputes between taxpayers and the minister of national revenue.

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Simpsons Limited

Simpsons, Limited with head offices in Toronto, was the present-day successor to the dry goods store opened in 1872 by Robert SIMPSON in Toronto. Originally averse to the idea of running a "department store," Simpsons eventually added shoe and specialty food departments and a mail order business.

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Food Additives

Consumers normally consider that the term "food additive" refers to almost all substances, primarily chemical in nature, added to foods during production, manufacture, packaging or storage.

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Adanac Quartet

Adanac Quartet(te). Name of two related male-voice quartets, active in turn 1915-19 and 1921-7. Adanac - Canada spelled backwards - has been a popular trade name for many years.

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Lightning

As a thunderstorm grows, or a mature storm approaches, this electric field is reversed. In general, the lower part of a cloud is negatively charged; the upper portions, positively charged. A further positive charge is induced on the Earth's surface below a thunderstorm.

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Leadership Convention

A leadership convention is a meeting of party members to select a leader of the party. Of the countries deriving their parliamentary system from the Westminster model, Canada alone has adopted and modified the American national party convention as the means for choosing its party leaders.

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Lighting

From earliest times it has been recognized that artificial light prolongs daytime activities. Relaxation and social interaction necessarily occurred after the day's work was done; therefore, indoor lighting has always had a special association with this aspect of living.

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Lieutenant-Governor

The lieutenant-governor combines the monarchical and the federal principle in provincial governments. Although the lieutenant-governor is appointed by the Governor General on the prime minister's advice, in the words of an 1892 decision by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, a lieutenant-governor "is as much the representative of Her Majesty, for all purposes of provincial government, as the Governor-General himself is for all purposes of Dominion Government."

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Liverwort

Liverwort, small terrestrial plant belonging, with mosses and hornworts, to division Bryophyta.

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Liberalism

Long before the political label was coined in 19th-century Spain, liberalism existed as a body of thought dedicated to the proposition that the individual is the unit of supreme value in society.

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Legal Aid

The availability of publicly funded legal services for poor clients in Canada has developed only in the latter half of the 20th century.

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Lily

Lily, common name for members of genus Lilium of the lily family (Liliaceae).

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Log Houses

Later, the posts were placed on a sill or foundation above ground level. This method was displaced by the pièce-sur-pièce technique: roughly squared, relatively short logs were laid horizontally, to meet at rabbeted corners.

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Logo

One of the first details a new company must consider is its corporate image, reflected in the design of a symbol to be used in advertising and on packaging, vehicles and stationery.

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