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Business Cycles in Canada

The business cycle is a term used to describe the ups and downs of the economy over time. A business cycle consists of a repetition of four phases — expansion, peak, contraction, and trough — that is often called the boom-and-bust cycle. Most often a measure of change in a country’s gross domestic product (GDP), the business cycle is a tool used by investors and business managers to analyze the performance of the economy and to make spending and investment decisions. Though business cycles cannot be predicted, forecasting when an economy will expand or contract and knowing when key turning points have arrived is important for consumers and business. The wave pattern of a business cycle can be measured in length from peak to peak, or trough to trough, in terms of months and years. On average, cycles last just over 7 years, though there is no definitive time frame for how long they usually last.

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Business Elites

The role of business elites has never been as straightforward in Canadian society as it has in countries with longer histories and more clearly defined class systems.

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Bye-boat

Bye-boat (by-boat), a name applied historically to any small inshore fishing craft, usually an open boat carrying 5-10 men, used in Newfoundland in the bye-boat fishery.

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Caddisfly

The caddisfly is a small (1.5-40 mm), drab insect of order Trichoptera ["hairy wings"].

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Bridge

Bridge is a card game played by 4 people, 2 in each of 2 partnerships. Contract bridge evolved from whist through bridge whist and auction bridge. Harold S.

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Brascan Ltd

Brascan, Ltd, formerly Brazilian Traction Light and Power Co, Ltd, is a major natural-resources company with substantial consumer product interests and extensive holdings in the financial services of the Canadian, American and Brazilian economies.

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Bras d'Or Lake

Bras d'Or Lake, 1099 km2, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean occupying the centre of Cape Breton Island that nearly divides the island in two. On the north it is linked to the ocean by a narrow channel down the west side of Boularderie Island.

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Canadian Historical Association

The Canadian Historical Association was founded in 1922 when the Historic Landmarks Association, established 1907 by the ROYAL SOCIETY, was renamed and reconstituted. The CHA is the professional association of all historians in Canada and was incorporated in 1970.

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Bourgeois

Bourgeois, according to an 18th-century writer, were not nobles, ecclesiastics or magistrates, but city dwellers who "nevertheless by their properties, by their riches, by the honorable employments which adorn them and by their commerce are above the artisans and what is called the people.

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Bourinot's Rules

Parliamentary Procedure and Practice with an Introductory Account of the Origin and Growth of Parliamentary Institutions in the Dominion of Canada, by Sir John George Bourinot, Clerk of the Canadian House of Commons, was published in 1884, with 3 later editions in 1892, 1903 and 1916.

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Treaty of Breda

Breda, Treaty of, agreements signed 21 July 1667 at Breda, the Netherlands, between England and the Netherlands and between England and France, ending the second Anglo-Dutch War. The former treaty recognized the English conquest of Amsterdam (New York) in 1664.

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Botany History

Long before formal study of plants began in Canadian academic institutions, they were studied by explorers and talented amateurs.

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Blue-green Algae

Blue-green Algae, now known as Cyanobacteria, are named for the blue-green pigment phycocyanin which along with chlorophyll a gives them a blue-green appearance. This led to Cyanobacteria being called blue-green algae before the kingdom Monera was recognized.

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Canadian Grand Prix

From 1971 to 1977, (except 1975), the Canadian stage of the world circuit took place at Mosport. In 1977, Jody Scheckter, in his Wolf Ford, was the last Mosport champion. The drivers then refused to participate in the racing judging the track too dangerous.

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Boxing

Boxing is a contest between two opponents wearing padded gloves who attempt to win by rendering their opponents unable to continue, or by winning a judge's decision at the end of a prearranged number of rounds. Boxers may hit only with their fists and from the waist up.