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Battle of Cambrai

The Battle of Cambrai in northern France took place from 27 September to 11 October 1918, during the First World War. The battle was among the Canadian Corps' most impressive tactical victories of the war, particularly because of the Canadians' skillful use of military engineers. It was part of a series of connected battles at the start of the Hundred Days Campaign, which would lead to the defeat of Germany and the end the war.

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British-Inuit Peace Treaty

The British-Inuit Peace Treaty was signed at Chateau Bay, Labrador, on 21 August 1765, between Newfoundland Governor Hugh Palliser and representatives of the Inuit of central and southern Labrador. The British had suggested the treaty to resolve tensions between the Inuit and the British, support British interests and provide the Inuit with the protection of the British and certain other benefits. (See also Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canadaand Indigenous-British Relations Pre-Confederation.)

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Wind Energy

Wind energy is energy obtained from moving air. The motion results from the heating and cooling of the Earth; thus, wind energy is an indirect form of solar energy.

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The War of 1812 (Plain-Language Summary)

The War of 1812 was fought between Britain and the United States between 1812 and 1814. The war ended in a stalemate but had many lasting effects in Canada. It guaranteed Canada’s independence from the United States. It also gave Canadians their first experience working together as a community and helped develop a sense of nationhood.

(This article is a plain-language summary of the War of 1812. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry War of 1812.)

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Canadian Army

​The history of the Canadian Army parallels that of Canada itself. What started as a small Confederation-era militia was built into a respected force of mostly citizen soldiers for the First and Second World Wars.

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Raccoon

The common raccoon (Procyon lotor) is a mid-size mammal distinguished by its black face mask and ringed tail. It is a member of the Procyonidae, a primarily tropical family of omnivores native to the Americas — and the only one of this family found in Canada. Raccoons are found in every province except Newfoundland and Labrador. A nocturnal species, it is highly adaptable and can survive in urban areas as well as wilderness habitats. Humans often consider raccoons pests due to their skill and persistence in raiding garbage bins, gardens and crops for food.

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Metropolitan Opera

Metropolitan Opera. This illustrious and venerable (founded 1883) New York company has influenced the development of opera in Canada through its tours, broadcasts, and talent-development programs.

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Jarman Publications Ltd.

Jarman Publications Ltd. Established in Toronto in 1947 by Harry E. Jarman (b London 28 Jun 1902, d Toronto 12 Sep 1987), who settled in Canada in 1924. Jarman was editor and advertising manager ca 1926-9 for Musical Canada and program director during the 1930s for radio station CKGW.

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Treaty of Ryswick

The Treaty of Ryswick (or Rijswijk), signed in 1697, ended the Nine Years’ War in Europe between France and the Grand Alliance, which included England and several other European states. In the North American theatre of war, known as King William’s War, the Treaty of Ryswick ended armed conflicts between the French and English and their respective Indigenous allies. However, the peace was short-lived; Anglo-French hostilities resumed in 1702.

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Finance Act

Finance Act, August 1914, emergency measure ending Canada's GOLD STANDARD and giving the Department of Finance new powers.

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Solitaire

Solitaire is the common name for 13 species of New World thrushes, one of which occurs in Canada.

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Le déclin de l'empire américain (The Decline of the American Empire)

A comedy of manners that functions as a sharp socio-political satire, Denys Arcand’s Le déclin de l'empire américain (1986) is widely considered one of the best Canadian films ever made. It won eight Genie Awards — including best picture, director and screenplay — and several international honours, including an Academy Award nomination for Best Foreign Language Film. It was named one of the Top 10 Canadian films of all time in two polls conducted by the Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF), and the 10th-best Canadian film of all time in a 2002 Playback readers’ poll. It was followed by a sequel, the Academy Award-winning Les Invasions barbares, in 2003. In 2016, it was named one of 150 essential works in Canadian cinema history in a poll conducted by TIFF.

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Château Ramezay

Château Ramezay, in Old Montréal, was the first building to be designated a historic monument by the government of Québec, in 1929. Recognized as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1949, it is now a museum with permanent collections and temporary exhibits where visitors can learn about over 500 years of Montréal’s history.