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Wartime Elections Act

The Wartime Elections Act of 1917 gave the vote to female relatives of Canadian soldiers serving overseas in the First World War. It also took the vote away from many Canadians who had immigrated from “enemy” countries. The Act was passed by Prime Minister Robert Borden’s Conservative government in an attempt to gain votes in the 1917 election. It ended up costing the Conservatives support among certain groups for years to come. The Act has a contentious legacy. It granted many women the right to vote, but it also legitimized in law many anti-immigrant sentiments.

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Pesticide

Substances used to control pests include insecticides (for control of insects), fungicides (for disease-causing fungi), herbicides (for weeds), rodenticides (for rodents), avicides (for birds), piscicides (for fish) and nematicides (for nematodes).

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Honeysuckle

Honeysuckle, common name for plants, usually woodland shrubs, of genus Lonicera, family Caprifoliaceae.

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Grouse

The Grouse (Tetraonidae) is a small subfamily (18 species) of chickenlike birds with circumpolar distribution above latitude 26° north.

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City of Gold

City of Gold (1957) is a classic example of the superb work by the National Film Board of Canada's (NFB) acclaimed Unit B Directors Wolf Koenig and Colin Low and editor and producer Tom Daly.

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Aphid

Aphid, or plant louse, small, soft-bodied insect that sucks plant sap. Aphids belong to order Hemiptera, suborder Homoptera.

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Rocky Mountain Trench

The Rocky Mountain Trench is a long and deep valley extending approximately 1,500 km from the Bitterroot Valley in northwest Montana through British Columbia to the Liard Plain just south of the Yukon Territory. Its predominantly flat floor is 3–20 km wide and ranges in elevation between 600 m and 1,000 m above sea level. With walls made of sedimentary, volcanic and igneous rock, the Trench is sometimes referred to as the “Valley of a Thousand Peaks” because of the towering mountain ranges on either side: the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Columbia, Omineca and Cassiar mountains to the west. Humans have relied on the rich resources provided by this distinctive landscape from pre-colonial times to the present.

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Land Acknowledgment

Land acknowledgements, also known as territorial acknowledgements, are short statements that recognize both the land and the Indigenous people who lived — and in many situations continue to live — on the land prior to Canada’s colonial history. They offer a short story from the stand point of the Indigenous people who grew and evolved from the land. Since the 2015 release of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s final report, land acknowledgements have become ubiquitous. In Canada, they are now offered before events, are common place on institutional websites, and are often found in people’s public profiles, social media biographies, and email signatures. In line with their relative newness, land acknowledgements have been subject to much discussion and critique. However, Indigenous people are not asking for their demise. Rather, they are seeking to make them more personal, heartfelt, and historically accurate — namely, more meaningful. Some people are also suggesting that they provide greater practical value for Indigenous communities, for example, in the form of Canada meaningfully sharing the resources the land and water provide. More provocatively, some Indigenous people are advocating that Canada give them their land back.

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Canadian-American Relations

Canada and the United States have a unique relationship. Two sovereign states, occupying the bulk of North America and sharing the world's longest undefended border, each reliant on the other for trade, continental security and prosperity. Despite radically different beginnings, as well as a history of war, conflict and cultural suspicion, the two countries stand as a modern example of inter-dependence and co-operation.

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Human Rights

Human rights are rights that we all have by virtue of our shared humanity. Depending on the nature of the right, both individuals and groups can assert human rights. Human rights as we understand them today are a relatively modern concept. All human rights are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. None has automatic precedence over any other. The realization of human rights is a constant struggle on the part of people who suffer injustices and who seek redress. Human rights are an important part of the social fabric of Canadian society. Canadians have also played a role in the evolution of human rights on the international stage.

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BC Lions

The BC Lions are a professional football franchise that plays in the West Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL). Since 1954, the team has won six Grey Cup championships.

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First World War Timeline

The First World War of 1914–1918 was the bloodiest conflict in Canadian history, taking the lives of more than 60,000 Canadians. It erased romantic notions of war, introducing slaughter on a massive scale, and instilled a fear of foreign military involvement that would last until the Second World War.

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Baseball in Canada

Canadian baseball has a proud and vibrant history. From the first recorded game, in Upper Canada in 1838, to the Toronto Blue Jays' winning season in 2015, this collection of articles recognizes the game as played in Canada, and the people around it.

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Igloo

Igloo (iglu in Inuktitut, meaning “house”), is a winter dwelling made of snow. Historically, Inuit across the Arctic lived in igloos before the introduction of modern, European-style homes. While igloos are no longer the common type of housing used by the Inuit, they remain culturally significant in Arctic communities. Igloos also retain practical value: some hunters and those seeking emergency shelter still use them. (See also Architectural History of Indigenous Peoples in Canada.)

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Persons Case

The Persons Case (Edwards v. A.G. of Canada) was a constitutional ruling that established the right of women to be appointed to the Senate. The case was initiated by the Famous Five, a group of prominent women activists. In 1928, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that women were not “persons” according to the British North America Act (now called the Constitution Act, 1867). Therefore, they were ineligible for appointment to the Senate. However, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council reversed the Court’s decision on 18 October 1929. The Persons Case enabled women to work for change in both the House of Commons and the Senate. It also meant that women could no longer be denied rights based on a narrow interpretation of the law.