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Article

Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada

Indigenous treaties in Canada are constitutionally recognized agreements between the Crown and Indigenous peoples. Most of these agreements describe exchanges where Indigenous nations agree to share some of their interests in their ancestral lands in return for various payments and promises. On a deeper level, treaties are sometimes understood, particularly by Indigenous people, as sacred covenants between nations that establish a relationship between those for whom Canada is an ancient homeland and those whose family roots lie in other countries. Treaties therefore form the constitutional and moral basis of alliance between Indigenous peoples and Canada.

(This is the full-length entry about Treaties with Indigenous Peoples In Canada. For a plain language summary, please see Treaties with Indigenous Peoples in Canada (Plain Language Summary).

Article

Confederation (Plain-Language Summary)

Confederation began with the union of three regions to create Canada. This happened on 1 July 1867. The three regions that joined together were the Province of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Today, the Province of Canada is known as Ontario and Quebec. Britain controlled each of these regions before 1867. When they joined together they became an independent country. Manitoba and the Northwest Territories were created in 1870. They became a part of Confederation at this time. The Northwest Territories gradually split into four provinces and territories known today. Yukon formed in 1898. Alberta and Saskatchewan formed in 1905. Nunavut formed in 1999. These provinces and territories have been a part of Confederation since their founding. British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873. The last province to join Canada was Newfoundland in 1949.

(This article is a plain-language summary of Confederation. If you are interested in reading about this topic in more depth, please see our full-length entry Confederation.)

Editorial

Editorial: The Charlottetown Conference of 1864 and the Persuasive Power of Champagne

On Monday, 29 August 1864, eight of 12 cabinet members from the government of the Province of Canada boarded the steamer Queen Victoria in Quebec City. They had heard that representatives of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and PEI were meeting in Charlottetown to discuss a union of the Maritime colonies. (See Charlottetown Conference.) The Canadian officials hoped to crash the party. Their government was gripped in deadlock. Even old enemies such as John A. Macdonald and George Brown agreed that a new political arrangement was needed. As the Queen Victoria made its way slowly down the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Canadians frantically worked on their pitch.

Macleans

Dayton Accord Signed

In fewer weeks from now, if the pact that the leaders initialled on Nov. 21 proceeds as planned, a U.S.-led international army will launch an effort to turn virtual reality into actuality.

Article

Kronborg: 1582

Kronborg: 1582 (other titles: Rockabye Hamlet, Something's Rockin' in Denmark, Hamlet - The Musical). Rock musical by Cliff Jones after Shakespeare's Hamlet.

Article

French Canadian Nationalism

French Canadian nationalism concerns a wide variety of manifestations of the collective will of much of Canada's French-speaking population to live as a distinct cultural community. Its innumerable ramifications have been not only cultural but also political, economic and social.

Article

Parti Québécois

The Parti Québécois (PQ) is a nationalist political party formed in Québec in 1968 through the merger of the Mouvement souveraineté-association and the Ralliement national. René Lévesque was the PQ’s first leader and held that position until 1985. The party was elected to its first term in office in 1976 and went on to hold two referendums on Québec sovereignty: one in 1980 and the other in 1995.

Article

Confederation

Confederation refers to the process of federal union in which the British North American colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada joined together to form the Dominion of Canada. The term Confederation also stands for 1 July 1867, the date of the creation of the Dominion. (See also Canada Day.) Before Confederation, British North America also included Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, and the vast territories of Rupert’s Land (the private domain of the Hudson’s Bay Company) and the North-Western Territory. Beginning in 1864, colonial politicians (now known as the Fathers of Confederation) met and negotiated the terms of Confederation at conferences in Charlottetown, Quebec City and London, England. Their work resulted in the British North America Act, Canada’s Constitution. It was passed by the British Parliament. At its creation in 1867, the Dominion of Canada included four provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. Between then and 1999, six more provinces and three territories joined Confederation.

(This is the full-length entry about Confederation. For a plain language summary, please see Confederation (Plain Language Summary).)

Article

Tenant League

Tenant League, popular name for the Tenant Union of Prince Edward Island, a militant agrarian movement fd 19 May 1864 in Charlottetown, PEI.

Article

Billy Bishop Goes to War

Billy Bishop Goes to War. Musical, written by John Gray with Eric Peterson and originally performed by the same duo. Taking as its subject the exploits of World War I flying ace William Avery "Billy" Bishop, it premiered 3 Nov 1978 at the Vancouver East Cultural Centre.