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Aeolian Landform

Wind erosion processes consist of abrasion, the scouring of exposed surfaces by the sand-blasting action of wind-borne material; and deflation, the removal of sand-sized and smaller particles by the wind.

Macleans

Mackenzie Valley Pipeline: Maclean's

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on July 17, 2000. Partner content is not updated.

Along with many other young native activists in the 1970s, Northwest Territories Premier Stephen Kakfwi cut his political teeth fighting against a proposed megaproject to build a northern pipeline through the Mackenzie Valley to the Beaufort Sea.

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Orange Order in Canada

The Orange Order was a political and religious fraternal society in Canada. From the early 19th century, members proudly defended Protestantism and the British connection while providing mutual aid. The Order had a strong influence in politics, particularly through patronage at the municipal level, and developed a reputation for sectarianism and rioting.

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Badminton

Badminton is a game played on a rectangular court (13.4 m by 6.1 m) divided into equal halves by a 1.524 m high net by 2 players (or 4 players in doubles), whose object is to hit the shuttlecock ("shuttle") over the net and onto the floor of the opposing side's court.

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Archery

There are 2 general types of longbow: the ordinary, straight-ended bow and the recurved bow.

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Education in Canada

 Education is a basic activity of human association in any social group or community, regardless of size. It is a part of the regular interaction within a family, business or nation.

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Duck

Waterfowl with short legs, webbed feet and narrow, pointed wings are known as ducks.

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Owl

The owl (order Strigiformes) is an efficient, carnivorous, nocturnal bird of prey.

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Bison Farming

In the early 1800s it is reported that over 50 million bison roamed the plains of North America. In the late 1800s, as a consequence of hunting for meat, hides and trophies, and conversion of natural grass to farmland, there were fewer than 1000 plains bison remaining.

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Women in the Military

Canadian women first answered the call to military service in 1885 during the North-West Rebellion when 12 women served in military hospitals. The first - Loretta Miller - arrived at the Saskatoon Field Hospital on May 12, 1885. Their participation, according to Major-General John W.

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Dogsledding

Dogsledding is a method of winter travel developed by northern Indigenous peoples. Early European explorers and trappers adopted it as the most efficient way to haul goods across snow-covered terrain.

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Chickpea

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is part of the legume family. The two primary centres of origin for chickpea are Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean, while Ethiopia is a secondary centre of origin.

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Infantry

Known as the “Queen of Battle,” the infantry is the branch of the army that provides its primary fighters. The main responsibility of infantry soldiers is to “close with and destroy the enemy.” Although they are trained, armed and equipped to fight on foot, infantry soldiers are usually transported to the battlefield by other means. Infantry soldiers can also specialize as light, mechanized, airmobile, airborne and other types. The characteristics of infantry are mobility, firepower, flexibility, communications and vulnerability (to enemy action). Infantry soldiers are trained in a wide range of individual and crew-served weapons and work with the all-arms team of reconnaissance, armour, artillery, air defence, engineers, tactical aviation and other combat specialists. Except for a brief time during the feudal period (when cavalry dominated), the infantry has been the largest single component of armies since ancient times. In Canada, the infantry has always been the army’s largest element.

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James Eagle (Primary Source)

James Eagle served in the Royal Canadian Regiment during the Korean War. He was one of several hundred Indigenous soldiers from Canada to serve in the conflict. James experienced nighttime raids during which two Canadians were captured, and the accidental death of his friend on base. Read and listen to his testimony as he describes his experiences in Korea, from training, to building a school, to interacting with locals.

Please be advised that Memory Project primary sources may deal with personal testimony that reflect the speaker’s recollections and interpretations of events. Individual testimony does not necessarily reflect the views of the Memory Project and Historica Canada.

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Cartography in Canada: 1500s

Most maps created in the 1500s that relate to Canada are manuscript compilations, often undated and anonymous. They were prepared by European cartographers rather than by explorers. Since cartographers had to work with available material, these maps are at times a perplexing mixture of new information and old, copied from unspecified sources. Any review of the sequence in which Canada was first mapped is therefore somewhat conjectural. (See also History of Cartography in Canada.)

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Oregon Treaty

The Oregon Treaty was an agreement between Britain and the United States. It came into force on 15 June 1846. It formalized the border between the United States and British North America west of the Rocky Mountains. It extended the border along the 49th parallel to the Pacific Ocean and down “the middle” of the channel that separates Vancouver Island from the mainland. The treaty resolved an important dispute between the two nations. But the lack of precision regarding the waterways between the mainland and Vancouver Island led to a dispute over the San Juan Islands, which resulted in an 1859 diplomatic conflict known as the Pig War.

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Western Rattlesnake

The Western rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus) is a venomous snake native to North America. It is one of three rattlesnake species found in Canada (a fourth is extirpated). Only one subspecies of Western rattlesnake, the Northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus), is found here. In Canada, Western rattlesnakes are only found in British Columbia. They are active from April to October, hibernating the rest of the year. Western rattlesnakes face many threats including habitat loss and fragmentation, road mortality, and persecution from humans.