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Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

In 1918, Canada sent troops to Russia as part of an Allied intervention to support Russian government forces against Bolshevik revolutionaries. One group of Canadian soldiers operated in northern Russia, around the ports of Murmansk and Archangel, while another, much larger group, the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force (CSEF), was based at Vladivostok. Although the CSEF never fought any battles, 21 Canadians died, most because of disease or accident.

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Davis Cup

Considered the world's pre-eminent men's team tennis tournament, the Davis Cup made its debut in 1900 when a Harvard student named Dwight Filley Davis donated the silver trophy as the prize for a team tournament that summer at the Longwood Cricket Club in Boston.

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Triathlon

The first recorded triathlon was held in California in 1974 by the San Diego Track and Field Club at Mission Bay. There are now more than 6 million athletes participating in the sport worldwide and almost 100 national federations.

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Choral singing; Choirs

Choral singing; Choirs. Canada's choirs have contributed significantly to religious, educational, and concert activities within the country, and some have earned high reputations abroad.

Macleans

JDS Uniphase Corporation

Jozef Straus has a reputation for being a bit, well, eccentric. There's that funky black beret he wears practically everywhere but in the shower - his company, Nepean, Ont.-based JDS Uniphase Corp., has even taken to handing copies of it out to visitors.

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Fisheries Policy

The challenge of fisheries policy is to preserve fish stocks while maximizing economic benefit to the people involved in the industry, to the communities that depend on it, and to the nation as a whole.

Macleans

Cannes Film Festival 2004

WHAT DOES IT take to shock Quentin Tarantino? As the gonzo director of Pulp Fiction and Kill Bill presided over the jury at the Cannes Film Festival, many of us expected him to award the Palme d'Or to some kick-ass movie about cruel vengeance and wanton bloodshed.

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Whaling

In the 18th century, British and American ships cruised the Atlantic seaboard. In the 19th century, Canadians entered the field, establishing a whaling station in Newfoundland, and taking whales as part of a deep-sea fishery operation from Gaspé.

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Epidemics in Canada

An epidemic occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly throughout a community at a particular time. Several epidemics have occurred over the course of Canadian history, the most disastrous being those which affected Indigenous peoples following the arrival of Europeans.

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Canada and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Canada has a long, complicated history with weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Canadian soldiers have been attacked with chemical weapons and have used them offensively. (See Canada and Gas Warfare.) Canada has researched chemical, biological and nuclear weapons; but also, ways to defend against them. Some chemical weapons were tested in Canada and against Canadians with long-term consequences. Canada played a crucial role in the development of nuclear weapons. (See Canada and the Manhattan Project.) The country employed nuclear weapons primarily as defensive weapons during the Cold War. Canada signed international documents limiting the use of these weapons. Canada no longer has weapons of mass destruction. However, Canada is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and NORAD — alliances that employ nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.

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Titanic

The RMS Titanic, named for the Titans, or god-giants of Greek mythology, built by the White Star Line, was the largest (269 m), most luxurious ocean liner of its time.

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Canada at the Olympic Winter Games

Olympic Games are an international sports competition, held every four years. Although winter events were included in the 1908 and 1920 Olympic Games, the first separate Olympic Winter Games were held in 1924 in Chamonix, France. Canada has hosted two Olympic Winter Games: in Calgary in 1988 and Vancouver in 2010. In total, Canada has won 199 medals at the Olympic Winter Games: 73 gold, 64 silver and 62 bronze medals. This does not include the gold medal in ice hockey won by Canada at the 1920 Olympic Games; while considered the first Olympic medal in ice hockey, it preceded the establishment of the Olympic Winter Games. The country ranks fifth in the total number of medals won at the Olympic Winter Games.

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Kings Landing Historical Settlement

Kings Landing Historical Settlement is located 37 km west of Fredericton, NB. It was created in the late 1960s when the Mactaquac Dam threatened to flood many historic buildings in the Saint John River valley. Over 70 restored and reconstructed buildings and other structures are now located at Kings Landing to represent a New Brunswick settlement of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Macleans

Holland Tightens Drug Laws

This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on June 3, 1996. Partner content is not updated.

There is still the Van Gogh museum, of course. And plenty of tourists stroll along the canals of the red-light district, giggling at the windows of sex for sale and the dulled Asian hookers who barely lick their lips in return.


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Irving Group of Companies

Companies owned by New Brunswick’s Irving family dominate the province’s natural resource industries, as well as its media, engineering and construction industries. The first Irving business was a sawmill purchased in 1881. The family now owns many companies that supply each other from different steps in the chain of production. These companies largely fall under four umbrellas: J.D. Irving Limited (whose many segments include forestry, food, construction and transportation), Brunswick News (newspapers), Irving Oil (oil refining and marketing) and Ocean Capital Holdings (real estate, radio, construction and materials). The Irving family owns Canada’s largest oil refinery, is one of the five largest landowners in North America, and employs 1 in 12 people in New Brunswick. It is one of the wealthiest families in Canada.

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Economic History of Central Canada

Ontario and Quebec constitute Central Canada, a region that accounts for over 58 per cent of Canada’s gross domestic product (GDP). The economic history of the region begins with the hunting, farming and trading societies of the Indigenous peoples. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, the economy has undergone a series of seismic shifts, marked by the transcontinental fur trade, then rapid urbanization, industrialization and technological change.

timeline

First World War Timeline

The First World War of 1914–1918 was the bloodiest conflict in Canadian history, taking the lives of more than 60,000 Canadians. It erased romantic notions of war, introducing slaughter on a massive scale, and instilled a fear of foreign military involvement that would last until the Second World War.

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Figure Skating

Figure skating is a sport that tests style and technical skill. The most important championships are the Olympic Games and the World, European and Four Continents Championships. The Grand Prix Series consists of six senior international events, including Skate Canada (first staged in 1973). Many Canadian figure skaters have achieved distinction at the international level by winning championships and medals; several have entered the record books by being the first to successfully perform challenging new jumps.

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Taxation in Canada

Taxes are mandatory payments by individuals and corporations to government. They are levied to finance government services, redistribute income, and influence the behaviour of consumers and investors. The Constitution Act, 1867 gave Parliament unlimited taxing powers and restricted those of the provinces to mainly direct taxation (taxes on income and property, rather than on activities such as trade). Personal income tax and corporate taxes were introduced in 1917 to help finance the First World War. The Canadian tax structure changed profoundly during the Second World War. By 1946, direct taxes accounted for more than 56 per cent of federal revenue. The federal government introduced a series of tax reforms between 1987 and 1991; this included the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). In 2009, the federal, provincial and municipal governments collected $585.8 billion in total tax revenues.