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Hypo Helmet

The Hypo Helmet (or “Smoke Helmet”) was an early gas mask developed by Newfoundland doctor Captain Cluny Macpherson during the First World War. Macpherson began working on the Hypo Helmet after the Germany army launched its first chlorine gas attack at the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915. The British army began issuing the Hypo Helmet to Canadian and British soldiers in May 1915. The design was soon modified, resulting in the P, PH and PHG Helmets. By war’s end, 2.5 million Hypo Helmets had been issued. The gas mask was one of the most important innovations of the First World War.



Chemistry, the science concerned primarily with the structure and properties of matter and with the transformation of one form of matter into another. Now one of the most theoretically and methodologically sophisticated sciences, chemistry had its beginnings in medieval alchemy.


Animals that Served in the First World War

During the First World War, military personnel from all combatant countries used millions of animals for work and as pets. This includes Canadians who served overseas as members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) and the Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force (CSEF), as well as Canadian service personnel based in Canada. Horses, mules, dogs and birds were the most common animals employed, although there were several others, including reindeer and glow-worms.


Unemployment in Canada

Unemployment is the unused supply of labour in the labour force. The unemployment rate measures unemployment and is expressed as a percentage of the total labour force, which is the total number of people who are 15 years of age and over who are either employed or unemployed. The unemployment rate is calculated by dividing the number of unemployed people by the number of people in the labour force. The unemployment rate is considered an economic indicator, an economic statistic that is used to interpret or understand the health of an economy. There are several types of unemployment and their causes are often debated by economists. The unemployed are not a fixed collection of individuals but an ever-changing group, most of whom might be unemployed only briefly.



Sports have a long history in Canada, from early Indigenous games (e.g., baggataway) to more recent sports such as snowboarding and kitesurfing. Officially, Canada has two national sports: lacrosse (summer) and hockey (winter).



Warbler is a name applied to several groups of birds, primarily the New World wood warblers, and Old World warblers of which only 3 species commonly breed in Canada.


Archaeological Survey of Canada

The Archaeological Survey of Canada (ASC) was established in 1971. It is the division of the Canadian Museum of History that deals with the archaeological heritage of Canada. The major goals of the ASC are to preserve archaeological sites, research into the history of Canadian Indigenous peoples and present the results of archaeological research to the public, through publications and exhibitions. The ASC’s Mercury Series of monographs is one of the main outlets for the reporting of archaeological research in the country. Its exhibitions, both in the Canadian Museum of History and smaller ones that travel across the country, enhance public understanding of the traditions of the Indigenous peoples of Canada. (See also Archaeology.)


Cartography in Canada: Indigenous Mapmaking

Mapmaking was a widespread and well-developed art among Indigenous peoples in what is now Canada. However, this fact has been largely ignored in the history of cartography. Most common were navigational maps, because the more nomadic hunting and gathering bands depended on effective navigation over great expanses of wilderness. Indigenous peoples also drew maps to facilitate trade and warfare over long distances. Groups, in particular the equestrian Plains Indigenous people, used military maps to venture into the unfamiliar regions. (See also History of Cartography in Canada.)


Bird Distribution and Habitat

Animals' lives are circumscribed by 2 imperatives: finding food for survival, growth and reproduction and avoiding becoming prey before reproducing. For an animal to occupy a habitat, it must be able to survive and reproduce within it. Birds have evolved many ways of meeting these challenges.


Nine Hour Movement

The Nine Hour Movement was an international phenomenon, taking place in Canada between January and June 1872. The movement’s goal was to standardize shorter working days.


Media Ownership

Western societies are relying increasingly on communication through various media and relatively less on face-to-face contact to organize and co-ordinate activities, to disseminate knowledge and information, to educate and entertain.


Forest Regions

A forest region is a major geographic belt or zone characterized by a broad uniformity both in physiography and in the composition of the dominant tree species. Canada can be divided into eight forest regions.


Conscription in Canada

Conscription is the compulsory enlistment or “call up” of citizens for military service. It is sometimes known as “the draft.” The federal government enacted conscription in both the First World War and the Second World War. Both instances created sharp divisions between English Canadians, who tended to support the practice, and French Canadians, who generally did not. Canada does not currently have mandatory military service. The Canadian Armed Forces are voluntary services.


Fishing, Ice

Ice provides a seasonal platform for fishing by netting, spearing and angling. Net, spear and hook were in use winter and summer in northern Europe and North America long before the dawn of history.