Search for "New France"

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Company of One Hundred Associates

The Company of New France, or Company of One Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent-Associés) as it was more commonly known, was formed in France in 1627. Its purpose was to increase New France’s population while enjoying a monopoly on almost all colonial trade. It took bold steps but suffered many setbacks. The company folded in 1663. It earned little return on its investment, though it helped establish New France as a viable colony.



Voyageurs were independent contractors, workers or minor partners in companies involved in the fur trade. They were licensed to transport goods to trading posts and were usually forbidden to do any trading of their own. The fur trade changed over the years, as did the groups of men working in it. In the 17th century, voyageurs were often coureurs des bois — unlicensed traders responsible for delivering trade goods from suppliers to Indigenous peoples. The implementation of the trading licence system in 1681 set voyageurs apart from coureurs des bois, who were then considered outlaws of sorts. Today, the word voyageur, like the term coureur des bois, evokes the romantic image of men canoeing across the continent in search of furs. Their life was full of perilous adventure, gruelling work and cheerful camaraderie.


Pierre-Esprit Radisson

After the governor of New France punished them for this expedition, the partners went to Boston to arrange a voyage to Hudson Bay. In 1665 they sailed to England, where their plan of bypassing the St Lawrence R to reach the interior fur-producing region found backers.


Black Fur Traders in Canada

The role of Black people within the history of the fur trade is rarely considered. Black people were rarely in a position to write their own stories, so often those stories went untold. This owes to a complex set of factors including racism and limited access to literacy. Black people are also not the focus of many historical documents. However, historians have identified several Black fur traders working in different roles, and even an entire family of Black fur traders who left their mark on history.


Coureurs des bois

Coureurs des bois were itinerant, unlicenced fur traders from New France. They were known as “wood-runners” to the English on Hudson Bay and “bush-lopers” to the Anglo-Dutch of New York. Unlike voyageurs, who were licensed to transport goods to trading posts, coureurs des bois were considered outlaws of sorts because they did not have permits from colonial authorities. The independent coureurs des bois played an important role in the European exploration of the continent. They were also vital in establishing trading contacts with Indigenous peoples.


Joseph-Michel Cadet

Joseph-Michel Cadet, butcher, military provisioner (b at Québec City 24 Dec 1719; d at Paris, France 31 Jan 1781). Born of generations of butchers, Cadet worked first for his uncle, a Québec butcher, and became the Crown's purveyor of meat in 1745.


Raymond Brutinel

Brigadier-General Raymond Brutinel, CB, CMG, DSO, geologist, journalist, soldier and entrepreneur, a pioneer in the field of mechanized warfare (b at Alet, Aude, France 6 Mar 1872; d at Couloume-Mondebat, Gares, France 21 Sept 1964).


Clark's New Job

On Monday of last week, Glen Clark, ex-New Democrat premier of B.C., was hanging off the side of an office tower 28 floors above downtown Vancouver. He didn't have a noose around his neck, as some in the business community might wish. Far from it.


Pierre Dugua de Mons

Pierre Dugua de Mons (or Du Gua de Monts), colonizer, explorer, trader (born c. 1558 in Royan, France; died 22 February1628 near Fléac-sur-Seugne, France). Pierre Dugua de Mons oversaw the founding of Port Royal, in Acadia (present-day Annapolis Royal), and Quebec City, Quebec. These two places were the first successful French settlements in North America. At a time of significant religious tension in France, there were few people involved in that kingdom’s exploration and settlement of North America that better represent the social, political and religious context of the early 17th century. Both Samuel de Champlain and Mathieu Da Costa, who are better known from this period, were de Mons’s employees and acted under his direction. De Mons’s legacy has been overshadowed by Champlain in part because Champlain wrote extensively about his work, whereas de Mons did not. In addition, in some of Champlain’s writings he replaced de Mons with himself.


H. Harrison McCain

H. Harrison McCain, executive (born 3 November 1927 in Florenceville, New Brunswick; died 19 March 2004 in Boston, Massachusetts). The son of an exporter of seed potatoes, McCain graduated from Acadia U and worked as a sales executive for Irving Oil Co.


Louis-Joseph Forget

Louis-Joseph Forget, stockbroker, politician (b at Terrebonne, Canada E 11 Mar 1853; d at Nice, France 7 Apr 1911). Forget established his own brokerage firm in Montréal in 1873, dealing mainly in transportation and utility company securities.


Nicolas Denys

Nicolas Denys, trader, colonial promoter (b at Tours, France 1598; d 1688). A young La Rochelle merchant, Denys sailed for Acadia in 1632 with Isaac de RAZILLY, and spent the next 40 years trying to develop the colony.


Reichmann Family

Reichmann Family, real-estate developers. The 3 brothers, Albert, Paul and Ralph were born in Austria where their parents had moved in 1928 and after further moves to France, Spain and Morocco, they arrived in Canada in 1956.


J.J. Johannesen

J.J. (Joseph Jean) Johannesen. Administrator, businessman, b Vitry, France, 23 Mar 1928, naturalized Canadian 1976, d Victoria 14 Mar 1994. Educated in Belgium, where he joined the JM movement upon its foundation, Johannesen was interested in composing but pursued a career in business.


Eric Harvie

Eric Lafferty Harvie, oilman, philanthropist (b at Orillia, Ont 2 Apr 1892; d at Calgary 11 Jan 1975). Harvie was called to the Alberta Bar in 1915. He served overseas in WWI, was wounded in France and achieved the rank of captain.


James William Carmichael

James William Carmichael, shipbuilder-owner, merchant, politician (b at New Glasgow, NS 16 Dec 1819; d there 1 May 1903). Carmichael, son of New Glasgow's founder, James Carmichael, became its most prominent merchant, shipbuilder and shipowner.


Thayer Lindsley

Thayer Lindsley, mining engineer, promoter (b at Yokohama, Japan 17 Aug 1882; d at New York C 29 May 1976). Born of American parents in Japan, Lindsley returned to the US at 15, graduated from Harvard in engineering and worked for the New York City subway.