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Reciprocity

Reciprocity was a free trade agreement between the United States and Canada. It mutually reduced import duties and protective tariffs on certain goods exchanged between the two countries. It was in effect from 1854 to 1866 and was controversial at times on both sides of the border. It was replaced in 1878 by the Conservative Party’s protectionist National Policy. It involved levying tariffs on imported goods to shield Canadian manufacturers from American competition. A narrower reciprocity agreement was introduced in 1935 and expanded in 1938. However, it was suspended in 1948 after both countries signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

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Cumberland House

The construction of Cumberland House in 1774 marked a change in HBC policy, which had hitherto expected Indigenous people to bring their furs to the bay posts to trade.

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St Albans Raid

St Albans Raid, one of several incidents heightening tensions between Great Britain and the US during the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. On 19 Oct 1864 a party of Confederate agents based in Canada raided the town of St Albans, Vt.

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Sailing Ships

In Canada's age of sail (1800-75) over 4000 ships, each exceeding 500 tons burthen, were built in Canada. In 1878 Canadian-registered ships numbered 7196 and totalled 1 333 015 tons. Among the nations, Canada stood fourth in seagoing tonnage.

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Royal William

The Royal William was the first Canadian ship to cross the Atlantic entirely under steam power. It was built by Messrs Black and Campbell and launched on 27 April 1831 by Lord and Lady Aylmer at Québec. The steam

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Treaty of Ryswick

Ryswick, Treaty of, concluded 20 July-30 Oct 1697 between England, the Netherlands, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on the one side and by France on the other, ending the War of the Grand Alliance (King William's War) and recognizing William III as king of England.

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Domestic Silver

As little domestic silver has survived, it is difficult to determine how much was made in the colony. Silver, obtained by melting coins or existing silver articles, was always in short supply.

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South Sea Company

South Sea Company, chartered in 1711 by the British Parliament, with a monopoly over the W coast of the Americas to a distance of 300 leagues out to sea. In 1720 it assumed a large part of the British national debt and almost collapsed that year in a stock market crash known as the South Sea Bubble.

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Social History

Social history is a way of looking at how a society organizes itself and how this changes over time. The elements that make up Canada’s social history include climate and geography, as well as the transition to industrialization and urbanization.

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Separate School

In both the US and Canada parents are free to choose to send their children to the state-run public SCHOOL SYSTEM or to a variety of private fee-paying schools.

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Zouaves

Between February 1868 and September 1870, 7 contingents totalling 507 Canadians enrolled in the papal army (whose soldiers were known as Papal Zouaves) to help defend Rome from the Italian troops who wanted to bring about Italian unification.

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Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War, the 1898 conflict between the US and Spain, during which the US removed Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines from Spain, annexing the last 3.

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Trent Affair

Trent Affair, the most serious diplomatic crisis between Britain and the US federal government during the AMERICAN CIVIL WAR.

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Trading Post

The trading post can be viewed as a large household whose size and social organization reflected the cultural heritage of its members and the post's role in the fur trade.