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A Mari usque ad Mare
Canada’s official motto is A Mari usque ad Mare, which translates as “From Sea to Sea.”
Fraser River Gold Rush
In 1858, around 30,000 gold seekers flooded the banks of the Fraser River from Hope to just north of Lillooet in British Columbia’s first significant gold rush. Although it dissipated by the mid-1860s, the Fraser River Gold Rush had a significant impact on the area’s Indigenous peoples and resulted in the Fraser Canyon War. Fears that the massive influx of American miners would lead the United States to annex the non-sovereign British territory known as New Caledonia also resulted in the founding of British Columbia as a colony on 2 August 1858 (see The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia). By the mid-1860s, the Fraser Rush collapsed, and British Columbia sank into a recession.
Historic Rockslides in Canada
Sutil and Mexicana
In 1792, after exploratory voyages by Spaniards Manuel Quimper (1790) and Francisco de Eliza (1791), the extent of Juan de Fuca Strait remained a mystery. Some still believed the strait held the entry to the fabled Northwest Passage.
Treaty of Paris 1783
The Treaty of Paris, signed on 3 September 1783, concluded the American Revolution and established a boundary between the newly-independent American colonies and remaining British territories in North America.
Later, the posts were placed on a sill or foundation above ground level. This method was displaced by the pièce-sur-pièce technique: roughly squared, relatively short logs were laid horizontally, to meet at rabbeted corners.
Sovereignty is an abstract legal concept. It also has political, social and economic implications. In strictly legal terms, sovereignty describes the power of a state to govern itself and its subjects. In this sense, sovereignty is the highest source of the law. With Confederation and the passage of the British North America Act, 1867, Canada’s Parliament was still legally under the authority of the British Parliament. By 1949, Canada had become fully sovereign in relation to Great Britain. This was due to landmark legislation such as the Statute of Westminster (1931). The Constitution Act, 1982 swept away Britain’s leftover authority. Questions of sovereignty have also been raised by Indigenous peoples in Canada and by separatists in Quebec. The latter, for a time, championed the concept of sovereignty-association.
During the SOUTH AFRICAN WAR 90 officers and men of the Royal Canadian Dragoons were assigned to cover the retreat of a British infantry column under attack by several hundred Boer horsemen near Leliefontein farm, east Transvaal.
From 4 December 1866 to March 1867, politicians from the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick met with delegates of the British government in London. This was the last of three conferences — after the Charlottetown Conference and Quebec Conference in 1864 — that were held to determine the constitutional details of Confederation. The Quebec Resolutions — 72 points that had been agreed upon in Quebec City — were reviewed and amended. They formed the basis of the British North America Act. It was passed by the British Parliament and received Queen Victoria’s Royal Assent on 29 March 1867.
Lend-Lease, an Act of the US Congress passed March 1941, providing for the transfer of American war materials to Britain and its allies in return for theoretical deferred payment.
King's Posts, a name applied during the French regime to fur trade and fishing posts in the King's Domain.
League of Nations Society
League of Nations Society in Canada, founded 1921 to promote international peace by developing public knowledge of and support for the LEAGUE OF NATIONS. With headquarters in Ottawa, it operated until 1942.
League for Social Reconstruction
League for Social Reconstruction, organization of left-wing intellectuals, founded 1931-32 in Montréal and Toronto, largely in response to the GREAT DEPRESSION.
La Presse Strike
Two days later, the 3 main UNION CENTRALS defied a municipal ban to organize a huge march in solidarity with the newspaper workers. More than 12 000 people clashed with 100 Montréal policemen. The outcome was some 50 arrests, several dozen injuries and one death from natural causes.
Labour History, see WORKING-CLASS HISTORY.
The Karluk was trapped by ice in the Beaufort Sea 300 km short of the planned base, HERSCHEL ISLAND. While Stefansson was away hunting seals, the weather changed and the ship was carried westward towards Siberia for 4 months until crushed by ice.
The first labour organizations in Canada appeared in the early 19th century, but their growth and development really occurred in the early decades of the 20th century. During most of the 19th century labour unions were local, sporadic and short-lived.
The Mackenzie-Grease Trail represents the final 350 km link which Alexander Mackenzie followed in the first recorded crossing of continental North America in 1793.
Laurentia, the name given by geologists to a landmass that, between 600 and 500 million years ago, embraced eastern North America, most of Europe and much of Asia. Writers have also used the word "Laurentia" as their name for a utopian Québec.