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Macleans

Martin Reports a Surplus

Finance Minister Paul Martin’s mission was clear in delivering his annual fall economic update. Douse hopes that much new spending is in the works. Dismiss the argument that Ottawa can afford a big reduction in Employment Insurance premiums.

Macleans

Jobs: Best and Worst

Caroline Armstrong is, in her own words, "an extremely organized person" - some might consider her a bit obsessive. Call it what you will, her attention to detail served her well during a 19-year career in customer service with Canadian Airlines.

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Economics

Economics involves the study of 3 interrelated issues: the allocation of RESOURCES used for the satisfaction of human wants; the INCOME DISTRIBUTION among individuals and groups; and the determination of the level of national output and employment.

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Economy

 Most modern economists think of ECONOMICS as the study of choice, so that, strictly, an "economy" consists of human beings - in this case Canadians - making choices, which obviously includes just about all of Canadian experience.

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Economic History of Canada

The economic history of what is now Canada begins with the hunting, farming and trading societies of the Indigenous peoples. Following the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century, the economy has undergone a series of seismic shifts, marked by the early Atlantic fishery, the transcontinental fur trade, then rapid urbanization, industrialization and technological change. Although different industries have come and gone, Canada’s reliance on natural resources — from fur to timber to minerals to oil, and on export markets for these commodities, particularly the United States — has underpinned much of the economy through the centuries and does so still in many regions today.

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Equalization Payments

Equalization payments are payments that the federal government makes to the poorer provinces. The monies come from Ottawa's general revenues and are unconditional transfers that can be spent as the recipient provinces please (see also TRANSFER PAYMENT).

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Consumer Credit

Canadian consumers obtain consumer credit whenever they purchase goods or services on account, or whenever they borrow funds to finance purchases already made. The most common type of consumer credit arrangements involve cash loans, usually to finance retail purchases on instalments.

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Continentalism

Continentalism is a term used to describe the theory of closer ties (eg, in the form of closer trade links, energy sharing or common water-use policies) with the US.

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Consumer Price Index

Consumer Price Index, a monthly measure of changes in the retail prices of goods and services purchased by Canadians in communities of 30 000 or more across the country.

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Exchange Rates

The dollar became the official monetary unit of the Province of Canada on 1 January 1858 and the official currency of Canada after Confederation.

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Business History

Business History, defined as the written record of the activities of individuals and enterprises seeking private profit through the production of goods and services, has deep roots in Canadian history, although it has matured only recently.

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Business Management

In addition to their problem-solving abilities and skills, business managers must have knowledge and expertise in the seven functional areas of business: production, marketing, finance, accounting, human resources, management information systems, and product research and development.

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Business Cycles in Canada

The business cycle is a term used to describe the ups and downs of the economy over time. A business cycle consists of a repetition of four phases — expansion, peak, contraction, and trough — that is often called the boom-and-bust cycle. Most often a measure of change in a country’s gross domestic product (GDP), the business cycle is a tool used by investors and business managers to analyze the performance of the economy and to make spending and investment decisions. Though business cycles cannot be predicted, forecasting when an economy will expand or contract and knowing when key turning points have arrived is important for consumers and business. The wave pattern of a business cycle can be measured in length from peak to peak, or trough to trough, in terms of months and years. On average, cycles last just over 7 years, though there is no definitive time frame for how long they usually last.

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Municipal Loan Fund

 The Municipal Loan fund, established 10 November 1852 in Canada West, was created largely by Francis HINCKS, co-premier of the Province of Canada, whose government's central policy was railway development.