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C.D. Howe Institute

The C.D. Howe Institute (formerly the Howe Research Institute), is a nonprofit policy research organization established in 1973 by a merger of the Private Planning Association of Canada, formed in 1958, and the C.D. Howe Memorial Foundation. It is located in Toronto.

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High Technology

Technology, along with labour, capital, resources and management, is one of the essential components of industrial production. Most classes of industry require some technological input, but the amount varies widely among industrial sectors.

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Home Economics

The study of home economics, which is based on both social and physical sciences, originated at the turn of the century in the US at a series of meetings of academics and national leaders in Lake Placid, NY, who were seeking remedies for the social ills of the day.

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Agricultural Economics

Agricultural economics, is a field of study related to the application of economics theory to problems and issues surrounding the production, processing, distribution and consumption of agricultural food and fibre products.

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Chartered Banks in Canada

Chartered banks, sometimes known as commercial banks, are public corporations that are licensed by the federal government to operate a banking business within Canada. By issuing these licenses (or charters), the Canadian government regulates and controls the country’s economy by influencing the amount, availability and distribution of money, and the terms or cost of accessing and distributing that money (interest rates). Chartered banks are regulated by the federal Bank Act and supervised by the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions. Chartered banks in Canada accept deposits from the public and extend loans (such as mortgages) for personal, commercial, and other purposes. Banks also own and operate trust companies, securities dealers and insurance companies and offer such services as investment banking, international banking and more.

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Interest Rates in Canada

Interest is the price charged to borrow money. Expressed as a rate, interest is a percentage of the amount of money borrowed (the principal amount) that is to be paid for an agreed period of time. Interest can be paid by a borrower to a lender (e.g., to a bank), but it can also be paid by a bank to individuals whose money the bank uses to lend money to other borrowers. In Canada, interest rates are determined by the policy of the Bank of Canada, the demand for loans, the supply of available lending capital, interest rates in the United States, inflation rates and other economic factors. The Bank of Canada helps the Canadian government manage the economy by setting the bank rate and controlling the money supply.

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Radical Economics

Originally the word "radical" meant relentlessly seeking the root of a problem and not shrinking from the action that follows as a logical consequence of its findings. More popularly, it denotes a sharp departure from conventional, orthodox interpretations of reality.

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Exports

Exports are goods or services which a nation sells to other nations. During 1996 Canadian sales abroad amounted to $330 billion, consisting of $268 billion (or 81.2%) merchandise, $39 billion (or 11.8%) services and nearly $18 billion (or 5.4%) investment income.

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Labour Market

The labour market is a generalized concept denoting the interaction between the supply (number of persons available for work) and the demand (number of jobs available) and the wage rate.

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Laurentian Thesis

 Laurentian Thesis, an influential theory of economic and national development set forth by several major English Canadian historians from the 1930s through the 1950s.

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Gold Standard

The gold standard is a monetary system in which the value of the currency unit (the Canadian dollar, for example) is defined in relation to the value of gold.

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Standard of Living

The standard of living is a measure of economic welfare. It generally refers to the availability of scarce goods and services, usually measured by per capita income or per capita consumption, calculated in constant dollars, to satisfy wants rather than needs.

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Navigation Acts

The Navigation Acts were a complex set of British laws dating from 1651 and 1660, regulating British and later imperial shipping and trade to foster economic and naval power.

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National Income

National income, strictly, is a money measure of the incomes received or accruing to residents of a country as owners of the agents of production, during a specified period of time.

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Mutual Aid

Mutual Aid is the principal economic means by which Canada assisted its allies with food, raw materials and munitions from May 1943 until the end of WORLD WAR II. The Mutual Aid Board, chaired by C.D.

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