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Nortel

Nortel Networks Corporation, or simply Nortel, was a public telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer. Founded in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company, it was one of Canada’s oldest technology companies. Nortel expanded rapidly during the dot-com boom (1997–2001), purchasing many Internet technology companies in a drive to remain competitive in the expanding information technology (IT) market. At its height in 2000, the company represented over 35 per cent of the value of Toronto’s TSE 300 index. It was the ninth most valuable corporation in the world and employed about 94,000 people worldwide at its peak. But Nortel soon entered an extended and painful period of corporate downsizing, and in 2009, the company filed for bankruptcy protection in the largest corporate failure in Canadian history. Shareholders, employees and pensioners suffered losses as a result. Company executives, however, were paid a total US$190 million in retention bonuses between 2009 and 2016. Nortel sold off its assets for a total US$7.3 billion. Those assets were scheduled to be distributed to Nortel’s bondholders, suppliers and former employees in 2017.

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Psychedelic Research in 1950s Saskatchewan

In the 1950s, Saskatchewan was home to some of the most important psychedelic research in the world. Saskatchewan-based psychiatrist Humphry Osmond coined the word psychedelic in 1957. In the mental health field, therapies based on guided LSD and mescaline trips offered an alternative to long-stay care in asylums. They gave clinicians a deeper understanding of psychotic disorders and an effective tool for mental health and addictions research. Treating patients with a single dose of psychedelic was seen as an attractive, cost-effective approach. It fit with the goals of a new, publicly funded health-care system aimed at restoring health and autonomy to patients who had long been confined to asylums.

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Telephones

The invention of the TELEGRAPH (1837) by Samuel Morse and the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham BELL were milestones in the quest to communicate over great distances with reliability, accuracy and speed.

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Ontario Hydro Meltdown

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on August 25, 1997. Partner content is not updated.

Carl Andognini gives his diamond pinky ring a fiddle and offers a thin smile. A very thin smile. He has just come from yet another meeting with a crowd of ONTARIO HYDRO staffers in the mega-corporation’s mirrored headquarters in downtown Toronto.

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Galaxy

Serious attempts to estimate the size of the galaxy began in the 19th century.

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Grain Growers' Associations

Grain growers' associations are a group of farm organizations formed on the Prairies in the early 20th century. They developed in the wake of the Manitoba Grain Act (July 1900), which regulated railways and grain elevators in the interests of grain growers.

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Space Travel Challenges

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on October 14, 1996. Partner content is not updated.

For mankind, the adventure began at 9:07 a.m. Moscow time on April 12, 1961. A Soviet air force major named Yuri Gagarin blasted into the Siberian sky aboard a five-ton spacecraft and the world marvelled at the astounding news that he had landed safely after circling the Earth in just 108 minutes.

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Rotary Snowplough

The first rail ploughs, in the mid-1800s, were made of steel and fitted to the front of locomotives like cowcatchers. They worked against light snowfalls, but were ineffective in the face of blizzards, drifting snow and avalanches.

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Atomic Energy Control Board

The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946 under the Atomic Energy Control Act, with the declaration that nuclear energy is essential to the national interest (and therefore under the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government).

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Agriculture and Food

Canada's agriculture and food industries have changed greatly in the years since the Second World War. Growth in Canada’s economy, and associated social changes, have altered the way food is produced, processed, handled, sold and consumed.

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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on April 15, 2002. Partner content is not updated.

Ashley Roll's mother is reluctant to have her come to the phone. She's worried that answering questions will take too much out of the 19-year-old, but Ashley says she's feeling up to it. Because of chronic fatigue syndrome, Roll is almost a prisoner of her home in Burnaby, B.C.

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Health Policy

Canada's national health-insurance program (also called medicare) is designed to ensure that every resident of Canada receives medical care and hospital treatment, the cost of which is paid through general taxes or through compulsory health-insurance premiums. Medicare developed in 2 stages.

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De Havilland Beaver

De Havilland Beaver, DHC-2, successor to the Noorduyn Norseman, was the all-purpose bush plane of the Canadian North. The Beaver was sturdy, reliable and able to take off and land on short lengths of land, water and snow. It has been called the best bush plane ever built. While de Havilland produced it for only 20 years — from 1947 to 1967 — many Beaver planes still fly today. The Beaver helped connect communities in remote areas of Canada, in addition to serving across the globe.

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Drug Therapy for Strokes

This article was originally published in Maclean's Magazine on March 20, 2000. Partner content is not updated.

One Saturday morning last November, Peggy Code collapsed outside a suburban Calgary mall. Helped to a nearby bench, the 64-year-old nurse realized she was drooling and that the entire left side of her body was insensate.


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Life on Mars?

It was an evening in summer upon the placid and temperate planet Mars. Up and down green wine canals, boats as delicate as bronze flowers drifted ....

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Electrical Engineering

Upon graduation, many electrical engineers form their own companies to manufacture electrically based products or to provide consulting services. Others become involved in research, design, manufacture, sales or maintenance of electrical equipment.

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Gender Identity

The term “gender identity” refers to an individual’s sense of their own gender, or the gender they feel is most in keeping with how they see themselves.