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Louisbourg

In the 18th century, Louisbourg was a fortified town and an important strategic capital in the French colony of Île Royale (Cape Breton Island). It was the scene of two major military sieges in the Anglo-French wars for supremacy in North America. The fall of Louisbourg to the British in 1758 paved the way for the capture of Québec and the end of French rule in North America. Today, Louisbourg is a national historic site and a popular tourist destination in Cape Breton.

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Burgess Shale

Burgess Shale is an area of layered rock featuring fossils from the middle of the Cambrian period (505–510 million years ago). In Canada, sites featuring Burgess Shale fossils are found in Yoho and Kootenay national parks. The name “Burgess” comes from Mount Burgess, a peak in Yoho National Park near where the original Burgess Shale site was discovered (the mountain is in turn named for Alexander Burgess, an early deputy minister of the Department of the Interior). Burgess Shale sites are the clearest record of Cambrian marine life because they contain rare fossils of soft-bodied organisms. The original Burgess Shale site is one of the reasons seven parks in the area were designated the Canadian Rocky Mountains UNESCO World Heritage site (the parks are Yoho, Jasper, Banff and Kootenay national parks, and Mount Robson, Mount Assiniboine and Hamber provincial parks).

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Baldoon

Sheriff Alexander C. Macdonell, Selkirk's agent, struggled for years at considerable expense to the earl to make a success of the venture, but found the swampy land and the difficulty of sheep farming to be serious obstacles.

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Fraser River Gold Rush

In 1858, around 30,000 gold seekers flooded the banks of the Fraser River from Hope to just north of Lillooet in British Columbia’s first significant gold rush. Although it dissipated by the mid-1860s, the Fraser River Gold Rush had a significant impact on the area’s Indigenous peoples and resulted in the Fraser Canyon War. Fears that the massive influx of American miners would lead the United States to annex the non-sovereign British territory known as New Caledonia also resulted in the founding of British Columbia as a colony on 2 August 1858 (see The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia). By the mid-1860s, the Fraser Rush collapsed, and British Columbia sank into a recession.

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Rutherford House

Rutherford House is an elegant Edwardian house built in 1909 for Alexander Cameron RUTHERFORD, the first premier of Alberta and chancellor of the UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA (1927-41).

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Port of Quebec

Throughout its history, the Port of Quebec has undergone numerous changes reflecting the needs and concerns of the day. From its initial military role under the French regime, the Port of Quebec turned to commerce and transformed radically in the 19th century as a result of the timber trade and immigration. These two new realities had major repercussions on the port’s development, which adapted to accommodate ships of increasingly higher tonnage. With its sizable ocean port, the third largest in North America after New York and New Orleans, Quebec became the primary gateway to Canada for hundreds of thousands of immigrants arriving by sea.

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Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (13 September 1759), also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal moment in the Seven Years’ War and in the history of Canada. A British invasion force led by General James Wolfe defeated French troops under the Marquis de Montcalm, leading to the surrender of Quebec to the British. Both commanding officers died from wounds sustained during the battle. The French never recaptured Quebec and effectively lost control of New France in 1760. At the end of the war in 1763 France surrendered many of its colonial possessions — including Canada — to the British.

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Fort Pitt

Founded in 1830, Fort Pitt was the major Hudson's Bay Company trading post between Forts Edmonton and Carlton (Saskatchewan), located at a large bend in the North Saskatchewan River just east of the modern Alberta-Saskatchewan border.

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Halifax Citadel

The general introduction of rifled artillery (with greater range and accuracy than earlier guns) shortly after completion of the Citadel rendered the costly installation obsolescent. It was partially rearmed in the 1860s and 1870s, and continued in use as a barracks into the 20th century.

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Leitch Collieries

Leitch Collieries, an Alberta provincial HISTORIC SITE, is located near the entrance to the municipality of CROWSNEST PASS. This mine site is now abandoned, but in 1907, when it opened, it was considered one of the most advanced and up-to-date coal and coke operations in Canada.