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Labour Relations

Labour Relations refers to the relations between employers and employees. They are affected by a number of factors, including labour organizations, COLLECTIVE BARGAINING, LABOUR MARKET, government policy, the structure of the economy, LABOUR LAW and technological change.

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Opting-Out

Opting-Out originated as a device by which one or more provinces choose not to participate in a federal-provincial shared cost program; instead the province receives direct payment (in cash or tax room) of funds which would have been spent there.

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Policing

IntroductionThe public police in Canada are armed paramilitary services charged with the general responsibility of social control.

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Legal Aid

The availability of publicly funded legal services for poor clients in Canada has developed only in the latter half of the 20th century.

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Law and Society

One of the most historic ideas about the LAW is that it is based on human nature or reason, and therefore simply reflects what is natural or reasonable, enabling society to function in a just and effective manner.

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Juvenile Justice Systems

On 7 July 1982, Parliament enacted the Young Offenders Act (effective April 1984, some sections not until 1985), which the government claimed would bring about a long-overdue reform of Canada's juvenile justice system.

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Law

Law governs the relationship of society's individual members to each other and to society as a whole. Every human society has a legal system, because every society must attempt to resolve the basic conflict between the needs of the individual and those of the community.

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Medical Jurisprudence

Medical jurisprudence, broadly defined, covers the relationship between a patient and a health-care provider such as a doctor, nurse, dentist, physiotherapist, or even an institution such as a HOSPITAL.

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Maintiens le Droit

Maintiens le Droit [Fr, "Uphold the Right"], the official motto of the ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE. The use of the motto by the NORTH-WEST MOUNTED POLICE was first advocated in 1873 and adopted 2 years later.

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Child Welfare

Child welfare in Canada refers to a system of children's aid societies established by provincial and territorial governments, at times in partnership with private organizations, to provide services that supplement or substitute for parental care and supervision.

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Pemmican Proclamation

​The Pemmican Proclamation was an 1814 decree that forbade the export of pemmican and other provisions from the Red River Colony in the colonial district of Assiniboia, in present-day Manitoba.

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Political Patronage in Canada

Political patronage in Canada is a broad term covering the granting of favours, money, jobs, government contracts or appointments to individuals or corporations in exchange for political or monetary support. Patronage can range from the relatively benign — political campaign members are frequently hired as staff members for elected officials — to outright corruption and fraud. Patronage is linked to lobbying, conflict of interest and corruption and is therefore a politically volatile subject. Though some efforts have been made to discourage patronage, the practice remains a fixture of Canadian political life.

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Probation and Parole

Probation is a correctional method under which convicted offenders are supervised in the community instead of imprisonment, or after a period of imprisonment has been served.

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Kidnapping

Kidnapping, historically, indicated the seizing and carrying away of children to make them slaves or servants or for some other nefarious purpose; for example, the marriage of an infant heiress to acquire a claim to her property.

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Plea Bargaining

Plea Bargaining is a form of negotiation between a person charged with an offence and a crown prosecutor. The accused person usually negotiates through his counsel. Plea bargaining can take several forms.