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Article

The 1969 Amendment and the (De)criminalization of Homosexuality

From the earliest days of colonization to 1969, sodomy laws made sex between men illegal in Canada. In addition, a law enacted in 1892 made “gross indecency” between men illegal. This included anything that indicated same-sex attraction, including simple touching, dancing and kissing. The law was extended to women in 1953. In 1969, however, sodomy and gross indecency laws were changed, making such acts legal under some circumstances. The parties involved had to be 21 years of age or older and conduct their affairs in private. Sodomy and gross indecency remained illegal outside of the home or if three or more individuals were involved or present. Thus, Canada’s Criminal Code continued to equate homosexuality with criminal behaviour under many circumstances.

Article

Bailiff

Bailiff, sheriff's deputy employed for the execution of judgements (eg, seizure of judgement debtor's goods, repossession of chattels, and evictions); also, an officer of the court having custody of prisoners under arraignment.

Article

Admiralty

Admiralty (short for Board of Admiralty), a British government department which, between its inception in the early 18th century and its amalgamation into the Ministry of Defence in 1964, was responsible for the conduct of naval affairs.

Macleans

Mulroney Wins an Apology

Teddy Kennedy was one of the first to call Brian MULRONEY at home last Monday morning with congratulations. The U.S. senator's message, Mulroney later told friends, included the observation that Mulroney "proved that a citizen can take on city hall, and win.

Article

Zundel Case

The Zundel case (1992) centred on the constitutional validity of section 181 of the Criminal Code which prohibits the wilful dissemination of false news. Zundel had published a brochure entitled "Did Six Million Really Die?".

Article

Kidnapping

Kidnapping, historically, indicated the seizing and carrying away of children to make them slaves or servants or for some other nefarious purpose; for example, the marriage of an infant heiress to acquire a claim to her property.

Article

Air Law and Space Law

Air law and space law are separate and distinct branches of law, although they are occasionally treated as one ("Aerospace Law"). Air law, the older of the 2, is the body of public and private law, both national and international, that regulates aeronautical activities and other uses of airspace.

Article

Anti-Inflation Board

Anti-Inflation Board, established by Act of Parliament in late 1975 to administer a wage-and-price-control program. Although the program was phased out during 1978, the AIB did not cease all operations until 1979. Because of its examination of company profits, close to $323.

Article

Plea Bargaining

Plea Bargaining is a form of negotiation between a person charged with an offence and a crown prosecutor. The accused person usually negotiates through his counsel. Plea bargaining can take several forms.

Article

Procedural Law

Procedural Law encompasses legal rules governing the process for settlement of disputes (criminal and civil). In contrast, SUBSTANTIVE LAW sets out the rights and obligations of members of society. Procedural and substantive law are complementary.

Article

Social Democracy

Social democracy, historically, is a term that has been used by individuals on both the far and moderate left to describe their beliefs, but in recent years the latter have embraced the term almost exclusively (indeed radical left-wing critics often use the term disparagingly).

Article

Copyright Law

Copyright law is included in what is commonly known as the law of intellectual and industrial property. This branch of law also includes PATENTS, TRADEMARKS and the law of industrial designs.