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Canadian Alliance

The Canadian Alliance party was created from the remains of the former Reform Party of Canada at a convention in Ottawa in January of 2000 in an attempt to merge conservative opposition to the Liberal Party.

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Law of Evidence

Law of evidence, the body of regulations governing the proof of the existence of a fact before a court. It falls under federal and provincial legislation. In matters governed by the former, provisions of the Canada Evidence Act must be applied. Common law must also be applied.

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Landlord and Tenant Law

Landlord and tenant law, governed by provincial statutes and judge-made law, varies considerably from province to province. Essentially, a landlord and tenant relationship is contractual (see CONTRACT LAW).

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Medical Jurisprudence

Medical jurisprudence, broadly defined, covers the relationship between a patient and a health-care provider such as a doctor, nurse, dentist, physiotherapist, or even an institution such as a HOSPITAL.

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Maintiens le Droit

Maintiens le Droit [Fr, "Uphold the Right"], the official motto of the ROYAL CANADIAN MOUNTED POLICE. The use of the motto by the NORTH-WEST MOUNTED POLICE was first advocated in 1873 and adopted 2 years later.

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Bloc Québécois

The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party that was created officially on 15 June 1991 (registered by Elections Canada on 11 September 1993). It was founded as a parliamentary movement composed of Québec MPs who left the Conservative and Liberal parties after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord. The party promotes Quebec's interests and Quebec sovereignty in the House of Commons. The Bloc was led by former federal Conservative cabinet minister Lucien Bouchard before he left to become leader of the Parti Québécois and premier of Quebec in January 1996. Gilles Duceppe played a significant role in the direction of this party, remaining its leader for nearly fifteen years. On March 18, 2017, Martine Ouellet was elected head of the Bloc Québécois, but she resigned in June 2018 after a leadership review. Yves-François Blanchet became leader of the party in January 2019. Under Blanchet, the Bloc won 32 seats in the October 2019 federal election, returning it to official party status.

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Maritime Rights

Maritime Rights was a regional protest that climaxed in the 1920s. Essentially a reform movement, it was triggered by the region's declining influence in CONFEDERATION and its inability to protect important interests in transportation, tariffs, port development and federal subsidies.

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McNeil Case

McNeil Case G. McNeil, a journalist who wanted to see a film (Last Tango in Paris) banned in his province (NS) by a provincial regulatory body, challenged the constitutionality of the provincial Theatres and Amusement Act.

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Money in Canada

Money consists of anything that is generally accepted for the settlement of debts or purchase of goods or services. The evolution of money as a system for regulating society’s economic transactions represented a significant advancement over earlier forms of exchange based on barter, in which goods and services are exchanged for other goods or services. Canadian money has its roots in the Indigenous wampum belts of the East, the early currencies of European settlers and the influence of the United States.

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Manitoba Schools Question

The struggle over the rights of francophones in Manitoba to receive an education in their mother tongue and their religion is regarded as one of the most important “school crises” in Canadian history, with major short-term and long-term consequences.

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Montréal Riots

In February and March 1849 when the LaFontaine-Baldwin ministry passed the Rebellion Losses Bill, the opposition violently denounced the Act.

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Militia Acts

Militia Acts provided manpower for defence. Until the 1850s, such Acts in Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick usually imposed compulsory service on males between 16 and 50 or 60, with annual or more frequent enrolment musters.

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Municipal Finance

Municipal finance is concerned with the revenues and expenditures of municipalities. Revenues are secured from local taxes (see TAXATION) and other local revenues and from provincial and federal grants.