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Forest Ranger

The term "ranger" probably has its origins in the North American wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. At the time, the land was heavily forested and armies developed special combat units of woodsmen and marksmen to carry out reconnaissance as well as surprise and diversionary raids.

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Pamajewon Case

The Pamajewon case (1996) (also known as R. v. Pamajewon) was the first case in which First Nations in Canada argued an inherent right to self-government before the Supreme Court. Spearheaded by two Anishinaabe First Nations, Eagle Lake and Shawanaga, the claimants argued that the Indigenous right to self-government included a right to control gambling practices on reserves. The Supreme Court ruled that these First Nations did not have rights to high-stakes gaming under self-government.

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Operation Dismantle

Operation Dismantle, founded in 1977 by T. James Stark and Peter Brown, was a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization whose goal was to bring the pressure of international public opinion to bear on national governments to negotiate an end to the nuclear arms race.

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Ottawa Agreements

The Ottawa Agreements were 12 bilateral trade agreements providing for mutual tariff concessions and certain other commitments, negotiated 20 July-20 August 1932 at Ottawa by Britain, Canada and other COMMONWEALTH Dominions and territories.

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Great Peace of Montreal, 1701

On 4 August 1701, the French concluded a peace agreement with the Five Nations Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). This brought to an end almost a century of hostilities marked by atrocities on both sides. The Haudenosaunee were permitted to trade freely and to obtain goods from the French at a reduced cost. In exchange, they pledged to allow French settlement at Detroit and to remain neutral in the event of a war between England and France. The accord assured New France superiority in dealing with issues related to the region’s First Nations. It also gave the French the freedom to expand militarily over the next half century.

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Advance Directives

An advance directive (sometimes referred to as a "living will") is a legal mechanism which enables individuals to plan for their own incapacity, and specifically for the situation where decisions have to be taken with respect to their health care after they are no longer mentally capable of making (or communicating) these decisions personally.

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Media and the Law

The media are the means by which we receive information we want and need. Over time, town criers and clay tablets have given way to printed text. Now, a wide variety of aural and visual information is conveyed to us in bits and bytes through a number of intermediaries.

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Sentencing Hate Crimes

For many offences, the Criminal Code prescribes only maximum sentences, giving judges wide latitude to determine fit penalties. Judges consider a broad array of aggravating and mitigating factors in sentencing. One aggravating factor is the motivation of racial or group hatred for an offence.

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Hate Propaganda

In Canada, the public promotion of hate against identifiable groups and the advocacy of genocide is, under certain conditions, a criminal offence, punishable by up to 2 years' imprisonment.

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Confidentiality

The duty which requires physicians to keep the information they receive from their patients confidential is well established in Canadian common law, health care legislation and professional codes of conduct.

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Law and the Internet

The INTERNET is a communications network that interconnects various computer networks by way of telecommunications. The nature of Internet technology makes it difficult for the law to regulate Internet users and information that is transmitted on the Internet.

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Restitution (Legal)

Restitution is a legal response calculated to take away a gain or enrichment that is considered to be inappropriate. It developed to address situations of unjust enrichment that were not adequately addressed by the laws of tort or contract.

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North-West Mounted Police

The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was the forerunner of Canada's iconic Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Created after Confederation to police the frontier territories of the Canadian West, the NWMP ended the whiskey trade on the southern prairies and the violence that came with it, helped the federal government suppress the North-West Rebellion, and brought order to the Klondike Gold Rush. The NWMP pioneered the enforcement of federal law in the West, and the Arctic, from 1873 until 1920.