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Article

Symbols of Authority

One of the earliest signs of authority (the right to enforce obedience) was probably a wooden club, in which symbolism grew directly out of practical application: the humble club became both an instrument by which power was exercised and (consequently) a symbol of authority.

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Office québécois de la langue française

Created in 1961, the Office québécois de la langue française is a Québec public institution responsible for linguistic officialization, terminological recommendations and the francization of the language of work in both the public and the private sectors. Since 1977, it has been responsible for ensuring that the Charte de la langue française is complied with in Québec, and for monitoring the province’s language situation.

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Ontario Schools Question

The Ontario schools question was the first major schools issue to focus on language rather than religion. In Ontario, French or French-language education remained a contentious issue for nearly a century, from 1890 to 1980, with English-speaking Catholics and Protestants aligned against French-speaking Catholics.

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Padlock Act

The Padlock Act (Act Respecting Communistic Propaganda) was a 1937 Quebec statute empowering the attorney general to close, for one year, any building used for propagating "communism or bolshevism" (undefined).

Article

Ombudsman

An ombudsman is an independent officer of the legislature who investigates complaints from the public against administrative action and, if finding the action unfair, recommends a remedy.

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Ordre de Jacques-Cartier

The Ordre de Jacques-Cartier (OJC), commonly known as “La Patente,” was a secret society founded in 1926 in Vanier (now Ottawa), Ontario, to further the religious, social and economic interests of French Canadians. At the forefront of the conflicts over language and nationalism until the 1960s, it discreetly wielded its influence by infiltrating various associations, and it mobilized its members within a strict authoritarian structure. The rise of Québécois nationalism and internal tensions led to its dissolution in 1965.

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Oregon Treaty

The Oregon Treaty, signed on 15 June 1846 between Britain and the US, describes the boundary between BNA and the US west of the Rocky (or Stony) Mountains. A compromise between the American desire for a boundary with Russian

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Oakes Case

Oakes Case 1986, in which David E. Oakes was accused of possession of drugs for the purpose of trafficking.

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Orange Order in Canada

The Orange Order was a political and religious fraternal society in Canada. From the early 19th century, members proudly defended Protestantism and the British connection while providing mutual aid. The Order had a strong influence in politics, particularly through patronage at the municipal level, and developed a reputation for sectarianism and rioting.

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Public Debt

In 1867 Canada's debt was $94 million and it grew slowly until 1915, when WWI pushed the figure to $2.4 billion. During the Great Depression the debt rose to $5 billion, and by the end of WWII it had reached $18 billion.

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Pemmican Proclamation

​The Pemmican Proclamation was an 1814 decree that forbade the export of pemmican and other provisions from the Red River Colony in the colonial district of Assiniboia, in present-day Manitoba.

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Political Campaign

Political campaigns are organized efforts to secure the nomination and election of people seeking public office. Technological developments – such as television, air transport, and the internet – have dramatically influenced campaign practices.

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Parti bleu

Favouring an attitude known as la survivance and opposing the anticlerical and radical Parti rouge, the Parti bleu received the support of the Roman Catholic clergy, making it the most powerful political party in Canada East (Québec).

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Peace Movement

Canada has a long tradition of an active and vocal peace movement. The Mennonites and Quakers, guided by a philosophy of nonviolence, have consistently spoken out against war and militarism.

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