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Film Distribution in Canada

Film distribution is one of the three main branches of the film industry. It provides the link between film production and exhibition. It is also the most profitable of the three sectors and is dominated by large multinational conglomerates. Film distribution companies supply movies, television programs, videos and new media to outlets such as cinemas and broadcasters. They do so in territories where they have acquired rights from the producers. Traditionally, distribution companies are the prime source for financing new productions. The distribution sector has been called “the invisible art.” Its practices tend to only concern industry insiders and go unnoticed by audiences. American companies dominate film distribution in Canada. They have controlled access to Canadian screens since the 1920s. (See also: Canadian Film History: 1896 to 1938.)

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Federal-Provincial Relations

Many of the concerns of modern government cut across the loose jurisdictional boundaries found in the constitution. National purposes can often only be achieved with provincial co-operation; provincial goals often require federal assistance.

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Estey Commission

The Estey Commission was an inquiry into the collapse of the CANADIAN COMMERCIAL BANK (CCB) and the Northland Bank. The Honourable Willard Z.

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Farm Law

In Canada more than 90% of farm businesses are family-owned operations; these operations involve about one million people.

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Electoral Behaviour

Not infrequently, elections in Canada produce results that surprise. A volatile and unforgiving electorate can quickly humble parties and politicians that take its support for granted. The 1993 federal election is one such example of a sudden and dramatic reversal of political fortunes.

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Defence Counsel

Defence counsel, lawyer who advises accused (defendants in civil cases) and presents their case to the court, ensuring that clients have a fair trial. If a client is convicted, the defence counsel speaks in respect of sentence.

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Crown Land

Crown land is the term used to describe land owned by the federal or provincial governments. Authority for control of these public lands rests with the Crown, hence their name. Less than 11% of Canada's land is in private hands; 41% is federal crown land and 48% is provincial crown land.

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Cultural Policy

At another level, culture is associated with communications and "mass culture" through broadcasting, film, book and magazine publishing, television, sound recording and new media, etc.

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Créditistes

 Créditistes, Québec party involved in federal politics. For nearly 2 decades before its 1958 formation into a political party, the Ralliement des Créditistes had operated a mass sociopolitical movement known as the Union des Electeurs.

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Criminal Code

Criminal Code, a federal statute enacted by Parliament pursuant to s91(27) of the CONSTITUTION ACT 1867, which provides the federal government exclusive jurisdiction to legislate criminal offences in Canada.

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Criminal Law

Criminal law, in its widest sense, includes substantive criminal law, the operation of penal institutions, criminal procedure and evidence, and police investigations (see Criminal Investigation).

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Double Shuffle

After the George-Étienne Cartier-John A. MacDonald ministry in the Province of Canada was forced to resign on 29 July 1858, a Reform ministry was formed under George Brown and A.A. Dorion.

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Dominion Police

The Dominion Police was originally a small protective force organized by the federal government in 1868 to guard the Parliament Buildings in Ottawa following the assassination of Thomas D'Arcy McGee.

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Court System of Canada

The court system of Canada forms the judicial branch of the federal, provincial and territorial governments and is independent of the legislative and executive branches of government. The Constitution Act, 1867 provides for the establishment and operation of Canada’s judiciary, including its courts of law. It gives the federal government exclusive lawmaking power over criminal law and criminal procedure, but not over the establishment of criminal courts. It gives the provinces exclusive lawmaking power over the administration of justice in each province. Canada has four levels of court: the Supreme Court of Canada; the Federal Court of Appeal, and provincial and territorial courts of appeal; provincial and territorial superior courts; and, provincial and territorial (lower) courts. Each type of law court has the authority to decide specific types of cases.