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Municipal Finance

Municipal finance is concerned with the revenues and expenditures of municipalities. Revenues are secured from local taxes (see TAXATION) and other local revenues and from provincial and federal grants.

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Canning

Canning, NS, incorporated as a village in 1968, population (2011c), 798 (2006c). The Village of Canning is located 100 km northwest of Halifax.

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Standard of Living

The standard of living is a measure of economic welfare. It generally refers to the availability of scarce goods and services, usually measured by per capita income or per capita consumption, calculated in constant dollars, to satisfy wants rather than needs.

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Cobourg and Peterborough Railway

One of the 2 earliest railway charters granted in Canada, the Cobourg Rail Road Co was incorporated in 1834 to build a railway from Cobourg northward to Peterborough across Rice Lake. The project was shelved until 1846, when it was revived as the Cobourg and Rice Lake Plank Road and Ferry Co. Samuel Gore built his plank road the 17 km to the lake, but it barely survived the first 2 winters.

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Navigation Acts

The Navigation Acts were a complex set of British laws dating from 1651 and 1660, regulating British and later imperial shipping and trade to foster economic and naval power.

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National Income

National income, strictly, is a money measure of the incomes received or accruing to residents of a country as owners of the agents of production, during a specified period of time.

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Ocean Mining

Several types of valuable mineral deposits exist under the oceans and other large bodies of water. Where water is shallow, placer deposits can be recovered by large dredges (eg, tin minerals off the coasts of Java and Borneo).

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Noranda Inc

Its principal activities are in mining, manufacturing, forest products and oil and gas exploration, with its subsidiary, Noranda Sales Corporation Ltd, handling worldwide sales. Noranda has properties in Canada, the US and overseas, including South America and Australia.

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Mutual Aid

Mutual Aid is the principal economic means by which Canada assisted its allies with food, raw materials and munitions from May 1943 until the end of WORLD WAR II. The Mutual Aid Board, chaired by C.D.

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Mortgage

A Mortgageis a legal paper in which borrowers agree to surrender their property to a lender if they do not pay back the money they owe, with INTEREST.

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Multinational Corporation

A multinational corporation consists of incorporated and unincorporated enterprises comprising parent enterprises and their foreign affiliates. The parent and each of the affiliates are established under the laws and practices of the countries where they are located.

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Income Trusts

Income trusts present an opportunity for investors to participate in a cash-flow stream generated by certain assets of an operating company.

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Mutual Funds

An investment company may have many different mutual funds, each fund possessing different objectives and asset classes. The objectives, trading activity and asset classes of mutual funds vary widely but must be clearly stated to the investing public in a fund's prospectus.

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CUPW Postal Strikes

Since 1965 the Canadian Union of Postal Workers (previously Canadian Postal Employees Association) has been involved in approximately 19 major disputes over several complex issues.