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Article

Navigation Acts

The Navigation Acts were a complex set of British laws dating from 1651 and 1660, regulating British and later imperial shipping and trade to foster economic and naval power.

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National Income

National income, strictly, is a money measure of the incomes received or accruing to residents of a country as owners of the agents of production, during a specified period of time.

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Ocean Mining

Several types of valuable mineral deposits exist under the oceans and other large bodies of water. Where water is shallow, placer deposits can be recovered by large dredges (eg, tin minerals off the coasts of Java and Borneo).

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Noranda Inc

Its principal activities are in mining, manufacturing, forest products and oil and gas exploration, with its subsidiary, Noranda Sales Corporation Ltd, handling worldwide sales. Noranda has properties in Canada, the US and overseas, including South America and Australia.

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Mutual Aid

Mutual Aid is the principal economic means by which Canada assisted its allies with food, raw materials and munitions from May 1943 until the end of WORLD WAR II. The Mutual Aid Board, chaired by C.D.

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Mortgage

A Mortgageis a legal paper in which borrowers agree to surrender their property to a lender if they do not pay back the money they owe, with INTEREST.

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Multinational Corporation

A multinational corporation consists of incorporated and unincorporated enterprises comprising parent enterprises and their foreign affiliates. The parent and each of the affiliates are established under the laws and practices of the countries where they are located.

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Income Trusts

Income trusts present an opportunity for investors to participate in a cash-flow stream generated by certain assets of an operating company.

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Mutual Funds

An investment company may have many different mutual funds, each fund possessing different objectives and asset classes. The objectives, trading activity and asset classes of mutual funds vary widely but must be clearly stated to the investing public in a fund's prospectus.

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CUPW Postal Strikes

Since 1965 the Canadian Union of Postal Workers (previously Canadian Postal Employees Association) has been involved in approximately 19 major disputes over several complex issues.

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Pulp and Paper Industry

The pulp and paper industry consists of manufacturing enterprises that convert predominantly woody plant material into a wide variety of pulps, papers and paperboards. The Canadian industry began in the 1800s, and has undergone revolutionary changes over the years. Most recently, the move from newsprint to electronic media caused the industry to decline; however, pulp and paper remains a fundamental part of the Canadian economy, especially for remote and northern communities.

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Pay Television

Although undertaken experimentally in Etobicoke, Ontario, between 1960 and 1965, pay television as a major venture was licensed only in March 1982, after a decade of debate.

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Pacific Western Airlines Ltd

In 1984, with the advent of the Economic Regulatory Reform (ERR), most of Canada experienced a deregulation program similar to that in the United States. The ERR had several significant effects. Two large trunk carriers, CAI and Air Canada, emerged, competing on major domestic routes.

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Pacific Fur Company

The Pacific Fur Company was established on 23 June 1810 and headed by New York fur dealer John Jacob Astor. Principal partners included ex-Nor'Westers Alexander McKay, Donald McKenzie and Duncan McDougall.

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Petroleum

Since its first commercial exploitation in the 1850s, petroleum has become the major energy source of Canada and the industrial world.