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Reciprocity

Reciprocity was a free trade agreement between the United States and Canada. It mutually reduced import duties and protective tariffs on certain goods exchanged between the two countries. It was in effect from 1854 to 1866 and was controversial at times on both sides of the border. It was replaced in 1878 by the Conservative Party’s protectionist National Policy. It involved levying tariffs on imported goods to shield Canadian manufacturers from American competition. A narrower reciprocity agreement was introduced in 1935 and expanded in 1938. However, it was suspended in 1948 after both countries signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Macleans

Global Goes National

It was like a scene from Traders, Global TV's popular drama about life in Bay Street's fast lane. Only this time, the star of the show was Izzy Asper in the role of the shrewd and stubborn chief executive.

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Woven Textiles

Canada has a rich history of weaving stretching back to the precontact Indigenous peoples and enriched by each succeeding wave of immigrants.

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Sidbec-Dosco (Ispat) Inc

Sidbec-Dosco (Ispat) Inc, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ispat International group, has its principal steel mill in CONTRECOEUR, and its head office in MONTRÉAL, Québec. Sidbec-Dosco is Canada's fourth largest steel producer.

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Shopping Centre

A shopping centre is a group of retail and service establishments built and managed as a unit, having one or more major "anchor" tenants and its own large parking area. Two American prototypes were Market Square, Lake Forest, Ill (1916), and Country Club Plaza, Kansas City, Mo (1922).

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Stagflation

Stagflation, the combination of high unemployment and high rates of INFLATION. Prior to the late 1960s, variations in economic activity were caused primarily by "demand shocks" (fluctuations in aggregate demand or total expenditure).

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Small Presses

Traditionally the difference between small press publishers and trade publishers has been one of scale, purpose and ideology. Trade publishers are entrepreneurs with large operations, comprising many departments and geared to market books that will be profitable.

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Soft-Drink Industry

The soft-drink industry comprises companies that manufacture nonalcoholic beverages and carbonated mineral waters or concentrates and syrups for the manufacture of carbonated beverages.

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Shell Canada Limited

Shell Canada Limited is an integrated energy resource company with head offices in Calgary. Active in Canada since 1911 (Dominion incorporation, 1925), the company is involved in natural gas and petroleum, petrochemicals and refined oil products, and alternative fuels research.

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Southam Inc

Southam Inc was created in 1904 by William SOUTHAM. Several papers were owned by Southam Inc, including The Calgary Herald, The Edmonton Journal, The Ottawa Citizen, The Vancouver Province and the Winnipeg Tribune.

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Statistics

Statistics is the science concerned with the collection and analysis of numerical information to answer questions wisely. The term also refers to the numerical information that has been collected. Statistics has many applications in Canada, from government censuses and surveys, to decision making in industry, to medical research and technological innovation.

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Timber Duties

Timber Duties First imposed in the 18th century to provide revenue, Britain's tariffs on imported wood were an integral component of the 19th-century British North American TIMBER TRADE.

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Strikes and Lockouts

A strike is the withholding of labour by workers in order to obtain better wages or working conditions. A lockout is the opposite, being the temporary shutdown of a business by an employer to compel employees to accept certain conditions.

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Employment Insurance

Employment insurance (renamed from Unemployment Insurance in 1996) refers to government benefit payments during a period of UNEMPLOYMENT. In Canada, the employment insurance system is financed by premiums paid by employers and employees and by federal government contributions.