Search for "New France"

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Article

Capital in Canada

In economics, capital traditionally refers to the wealth owned or employed by an individual or a business. This wealth can exist in the form of money or property. Definitions of capital are constantly evolving, however. For example, in some contexts it is synonymous with equity. Social capital can refer to positive outcomes of interactions between people or to the effective functioning of groups. Human capital refers to people’s experience, skills and education, viewed as an economic resource.

Article

Collectivism

As the social evils of industrialization and urbanization unfolded in the later 19th century, many Canadians saw the basic problem as an excess of individualism.

Article

Reciprocity

Reciprocity was a free trade agreement between the United States and Canada. It mutually reduced import duties and protective tariffs on certain goods exchanged between the two countries. It was in effect from 1854 to 1866 and was controversial at times on both sides of the border. It was replaced in 1878 by the Conservative Party’s protectionist National Policy. It involved levying tariffs on imported goods to shield Canadian manufacturers from American competition. A narrower reciprocity agreement was introduced in 1935 and expanded in 1938. However, it was suspended in 1948 after both countries signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

Article

Petro-Canada

Petro-Canada, created by the federal government in the mid-1970s as Canada's national oil company, was the offspring of the world energy crisis, Canadian ECONOMIC NATIONALISM, and a tradition of state-supported development of the country's costly energy frontier.

Macleans

Counterfeit Plague

SOME COUNTERFEIT MONEY is easy to spot. A veteran RCMP officer recalls once seeing a particularly lame bill photocopied in black and white, then coloured in with crayons.

Article

Global Affairs Canada (GAC)

Global Affairs Canada (GAC) was originally founded as the Department of External Affairs in 1909 by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier. The operations, mandate and title of the department have evolved over the years. Although legally incorporated as the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development, its public designation since 2015 has been Global Affairs Canada.  The department is responsible for overseeing Canada’s international engagement, including diplomatic relations, providing consular services, promoting international trade and international law, and leading Canada’s international development and humanitarian assistance.

Macleans

CIBC-TD Merger

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on April 27, 1998. Partner content is not updated.

This time, Paul Martin kept his cool. Last January, the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank announced plans to merge and create one superbank, with assets of $453 billion.

Article

Mining

Mining is one of Canada’s primary industries and involves the extraction, refining, and/or processing of economically valuable rocks and minerals. Mineral products (including goldsilverironcopperzinc nickelare critical to modern industrial society. Although mining has been key to Canadian settlement and development, in recent decades the industry has also been criticized for its environmental and social impacts. Canada remains one of the world’s leading mining countries and has become a centre of global mining finance and expertise.

Macleans

Nova and TransCanada Merge

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on February 9, 1998. Partner content is not updated.

When he arrived at his Calgary office last Nov. 11 after unveiling a plan to split Nova Corp.'s pipeline and petrochemical operations into separate companies, CEO Ted Newall received an urgent message from his counterpart at TransCanada PipeLines Ltd.

Article

Barter

Barter is the exchange of one commodity or service for another without the use of money as a medium of exchange. A barter agreement (also called "countertrade") among countries calls for the exchange of stated amounts of goods.

Article

Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics is a field of economics that studies economic behaviour in the aggregate, or as a whole. It investigates economic issues such as employment, national income, price inflation and international trade. By contrast, microeconomics studies the behaviour of individuals and firms in allocating scarce resources.

Macroeconomics emerged in the 1930s as a separate field largely in response to the Great Depression. Macroeconomists often use aggregate measures to study the structure and behaviour of the entire economy. Some of those measures include gross domestic product (GDP), unemployment rate, interest rates, economic growth rates and price indices (see Consumer Price Index). This branch of economics is closely tied to government policy, especially fiscal policy (government spending with the aim of stimulating the economy) and monetary policy (policies related to the supply of money). Developments in macroeconomic theory often affect the monetary policies of central banks, such as the Bank of Canada and the United States’ Federal Reserve, that in turn have an impact on the cost of living and economic stability around the world.

Article

North West Company

Founded in 1779, the North West Company was a major force in the fur trade from the 1780s to 1821. Managed primarily by Highland Scots who migrated to Montréal after 1760, or came as Loyalists escaping the American Revolution, it also drew heavily on French-Canadian labour and experience. The name first described Montréal traders who in 1776 pooled resources to reduce competition among themselves and to resist inland advances of the Hudson’s Bay Company.