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Hamilton Tiger-Cats

The Hamilton Tiger-Cats are a professional team in the Canadian Football League (CFL). The franchise dates back to the formation of the Hamilton Football Club (the Tigers) in November 1869. The Tigers and another Hamilton football team, the Wildcats, amalgamated as the Tiger-Cats for the 1950 season and played in the Inter-provincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU). The IRFU became the Eastern Conference of the CFL in 1960. Since the early 20th century, the Tigers and Tiger-Cats have been associated with a tough, physical brand of football that reflects the blue-collar roots of Hamilton as an industrial city. The team’s iconic cheer, “Oskie Wee Wee, Oskie Waa Waa, Holy Mackinaw, Tigers… Eat ’em Raw!” is well known throughout Canada and dates back to the early 20th century. The Tiger-Cats have won the Grey Cup 13 times, including five times as the Tigers.

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CUPW Postal Strikes

Since 1965 the Canadian Union of Postal Workers (previously Canadian Postal Employees Association) has been involved in approximately 19 major disputes over several complex issues.

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Pacific Western Airlines Ltd

In 1984, with the advent of the Economic Regulatory Reform (ERR), most of Canada experienced a deregulation program similar to that in the United States. The ERR had several significant effects. Two large trunk carriers, CAI and Air Canada, emerged, competing on major domestic routes.

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Canada Pension Plan

The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is an earnings-related public pension plan. The CPP makes a monthly payment to Canadians and their families to partially replace their income after retirement, disability or death. Working Canadians make regular payments to the CPP in order to be eligible. The CPP covers all Canadian workers except those in Quebec who are covered by the parallel Quebec Pension Plan (QPP). The Canada Pension Plan Investment Board manages about $300 billion in CPP assets, making it one of the largest pension fund managers in the world.

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Maclean's

Owned by Roger's Publishing Ltd and published in Toronto, Ontario, Maclean's is Canada's national weekly current affairs magazine.

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Nine Hour Movement

The Nine Hour Movement was an international phenomenon, taking place in Canada between January and June 1872. The movement’s goal was to standardize shorter working days.

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Electric Utilities

Electric utilities are private or government organizations involved in the production, transmission, distribution, marketing and sale to consumers of electric power. Canadian electric utilities account for approximately 92% of the total production of electrical energy in Canada.

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DuPont Canada

E.I. du Pont Canada Company, commonly known as DuPont Canada, is a subsidiary of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, which is headquartered in the United States and known worldwide as the maker of Kevlar, Teflon, Lycra, nylon and cellophane, among many other products. DuPont Canada is headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario. The company has six main product lines, including agricultural, food and personal care products, construction equipment, industrial biotechnology, safety equipment, and polymers and fibres. It is the largest subsidiary of DuPont in the Americas with some $730 million in net sales in 2016.

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Media Ownership

Western societies are relying increasingly on communication through various media and relatively less on face-to-face contact to organize and co-ordinate activities, to disseminate knowledge and information, to educate and entertain.

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Nortel

Nortel Networks Corporation, or simply Nortel, was a public telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer. Founded in 1895 as the Northern Electric and Manufacturing Company, it was one of Canada’s oldest technology companies. Nortel expanded rapidly during the dot-com boom (1997–2001), purchasing many Internet technology companies in a drive to remain competitive in the expanding information technology (IT) market. At its height in 2000, the company represented over 35 per cent of the value of Toronto’s TSE 300 index. It was the ninth most valuable corporation in the world and employed about 94,000 people worldwide at its peak. But Nortel soon entered an extended and painful period of corporate downsizing, and in 2009, the company filed for bankruptcy protection in the largest corporate failure in Canadian history. Shareholders, employees and pensioners suffered losses as a result. Company executives, however, were paid a total US$190 million in retention bonuses between 2009 and 2016. Nortel sold off its assets for a total US$7.3 billion. Those assets were scheduled to be distributed to Nortel’s bondholders, suppliers and former employees in 2017.

Macleans

Newcourt Credit

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on February 23, 1998. Partner content is not updated.

Steven Hudson learned early about the power of performance-based compensation. As a teenager in Scarborough, Ont., he took a job at a bingo hall for seniors, pushing a refreshment cart up and down the aisles. The more chips and popcorn he sold, the more money he took home.

Macleans

Martin's 1998 Budget

This article was originally published in Maclean’s magazine on March 9, 1998. Partner content is not updated.

There were still three weeks remaining before budget day when Finance Minister Paul Martin sat down one afternoon for a strategy session in his fifth-floor office in the Centre Block of the Parliament Buildings.

Macleans

Philip Services Corp

There has been growth - but, lately, in the field of bad news (page 54). On Jan. 27, the company announced an after-tax loss in 1997 of close to $260 million. That figure, the firm acknowledged, included $88 million worth of reclaimed copper that Philip could not account for.

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Industrialization in Canada

Industrialization is a process of economic and social change. It is one that shifts the centres of economic activity onto the focus of work, wages and incomes. These changes took two forms in Canada, beginning in the 19th century. First, economic and social activities were transformed from agriculture and natural resource extraction to manufacturing and services. Second, economic and social activities shifted from rural cottage industries to urban industrial pursuits. Industrialized production took place under the privately owned factory system, in which a larger proportion of the population expected to be wage earners for all of their working lives. Therefore, industrialization brought major changes, not only in work and the economy, but in the way society was organized and in the relations among different groups in society. Although it has evolved over nearly two centuries, the process of industrialization is considered revolutionary — as the term Industrial Revolution suggests — because it marked the shift from feudalism to capitalism, and from agriculture to manufacturing and services — changes that fundamentally altered human existence.