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Windsor (Ont)

Windsor, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1892, population 217,188 (2016 census), 210,891 (2011 census). The city of Windsor is Canada’s southernmost city. It is located on the Detroit River in the extreme southwest corner of the province. Lying directly south of Detroit on the rich agricultural peninsula nestled between Lakes Erie and  St. Clair, Windsor is an international gateway through which millions of foreign visitors enter the country each year.

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History of Métis Settlements in Canada

Métis communities are found across Canada; however, the only legislated Métis land base is in Alberta. Eight Métis settlements are located across the northern and central-eastern part of the province: Paddle Prairie, Peavine, Gift Lake, East Prairie, Buffalo Lake, Kikino, Elizabeth and Fishing Lake. As of 2016, the settlements cover 512,121 hectares of land and are home to approximately 5,000 people. The Métis Settlements are self-governing and provide for the protection of Métis culture and identity.

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Smiths Falls

Smiths Falls, ON, incorporated as a town in 1882, population 9,254 (2021 census), 8,780 (2016 census). The Town of Smiths Falls is located on the Rideau River, 60 km southwest of Ottawa. The town is an important lockport on the waterway.

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Burlington

Burlington, Ontario, population 186,948 (2021 census), 183,314 (2016 census), is located at the head of Lake Ontario. It borders Hamilton, Milton and Oakville. Burlington was first incorporated in 1873 as a village, as a town in 1915, and as a city in 1974. Amalgamation created the modern boundaries in 1958, combining the Town of Burlington, Nelson Township, and part of East Flamborough Township. Throughout history, the Burlington area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Neutral, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by treaties 3, 8, 14 and 19 (see Upper Canada Land Surrenders).

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Newfoundland and Labrador and Confederation

Attempts to bring Newfoundland into Confederation in the 1860s and 1890s were met with lukewarm interest in the colony. In 1934, Newfoundland was in bankruptcy during the Great Depression. It suspended responsible government and accepted an unelected Commission Government directed by Britain. In a 1948 referendum, Newfoundlanders were given the choice to either continue with the Commission Government, join Canada, or seek a return to responsible government as an independent dominion. The independence option won the first vote. But the Confederation option won a run-off vote with 52.3 percent support. The British and Canadian parliaments approved of the union. Newfoundland became Canada’s 10th province on 31 March 1949. In 2001, the province’s name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador.

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Kingston

Kingston, Ontario, incorporated as a city 1846, population 132,485 (2021 census), 123,798 (2016 census). Kingston was first settled in 1783, incorporated as a town in 1838 and as a city in 1846. It is located approximately 175 km southwest of Ottawa, 290 km west of Montreal and 260 km east of Toronto. The former capital of the Province of Canada (1841), Kingston’s position at the junction of the  Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River, its proximity to the border with the United States and the dominance of the  Canadian Shield in its surrounding area, have been crucial to its settlement, political and economic history.

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Halton Hills

Halton Hills, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 62,951 (2021 census), 61,161 (2016 census). Halton Hills is located approximately 45 km west of Toronto and was created by the amalgamation of Acton, Georgetown and Esquesing Township. The town also encompasses several hamlets — Ballinafad, Glen Williams, Stewarttown, Limehouse, Glen Lawson, Speyside, Ashgrove, Crewson’s Corners, Bannockburn, Henderson’s Corners, Whaley’s Corners, Mansewood, Hornby, Silver Creek, Terra Cotta and Norval. From 1926 to 1935, Norval was home to Lucy Maud Montgomery, author of Anne of Green Gables.

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Dresden

Dresden, Ontario, population centre, population 2,401 (2021 census), 2,451 (2016 census). Incorporated as a town in 1882, Dresden lost this status in 1998 after it merged into the new municipality of Chatham-Kent. Dresden is an agricultural community located in southwestern Ontario on the Sydenham River. The Dawn Settlement, near Dresden, was one of the final destinations of the Underground Railroad. In the mid-20th century, some businesses in Dresden became infamous for refusing to serve Black Canadians (see Racial Segregation of Black People).

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Regina

Regina, Saskatchewan, founded in 1882, incorporated as a city in 1903, population 215,106 (2016 c), 193,100 (2011 c). The City of Regina is the capital, commercial and financial centre of Saskatchewan. Regina is situated 160 km north of the United States border. The city is set in a wide, level alluvial plain. It was named for Queen Victoria, mother-in-law of the Marquess of Lorne, governor general at the time of the city’s founding.

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Cupids

Cupids, Newfoundland and Labrador, incorporated as a town in 1965, population 743 (2016 census), 761 (2011 census). The town of Cupids is located in southwest Conception Bay on the Avalon Peninsula, about 80 km west of St. John's. Originally known as Cupers Cove (1610), other early variants of the name include Cuperts Cove and Kibby's Cove. However, the name Cupids Cove appears quite early: Sir William Alexander referred to it by this name in his An Encouragement to Colonies (1624). No one knows the origin of the name, but it may be an anglicized version of a Spanish or Basque name.

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Kitimat

Kitimat, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1953, population 8,236 (2021 census), 8,131 (2016 census). The district of Kitimat is located at the head of the Douglas Channel, 206 km east of Prince Rupert by road. Its name comes from the Tsimshian term for the Haisla inhabitants of the area, Kitamaat (“people of the snow”). The modern community was founded in the early 1950s.

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Cambridge

Cambridge, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1973, population 138,479 (2021 census), 129,920 (2016 census). Cambridge is located within Waterloo Region and along the Grand River. It was created through the amalgamation of the City of Galt, the Towns of Preston and Hespeler, and parts of North Dumfries and Waterloo townships.

Throughout history, the Cambridge area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Neutral, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabe. The land is covered by the Haldimand Proclamation.

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Fort Nelson

Fort Nelson, BC, population centre, population 2,611 (2021 census), 3,371 (2016 census). Fort Nelson is the service centre for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM). The NRRM is made up of a number of communities, of which Fort Nelson is the largest. Fort Nelson is located in the northeast corner of British Columbia, near the confluence of three rivers: Muskwa, Prophet and Sikanni Chief. Together these rivers combine to become the Fort Nelson River. The community is 387 km north of Fort St. John. It was named after British Admiral Horatio Nelson, famous for the Battle of Trafalgar. Incorporated as a town in 1987, Fort Nelson became a part of the NRRM in 2009.

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Squamish

Squamish, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1964, population 23,819 (2021 census), 19,497 (2016 census). The district of Squamish is located 70 km north of Vancouver at the head of Howe Sound. The municipality is governed by a mayor and six councillors. It is the service centre for a richly endowed recreational area, with road, rail and water access to Vancouver.

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Reserves in Nova Scotia

There are 42 reserves in Nova Scotia, held by 13 First Nations (see First Nations in Nova Scotia). Nova Scotia is one of just two provinces, the other being Prince Edward Island, that is part of the traditional territory of only one Indigenous people. In both cases, it is the Mi'kmaq. In 2020, there were 17,895 registered Mi’kmaq in Nova Scotia, about 63 per cent of whom (11,202 people) lived on reserve. Reserves in Nova Scotia vary in size from over 3,500 hectares to less than one, though almost every First Nation has more than one land tract.

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Quebec Act, 1774

The Quebec Act received royal assent on 22 June 1774. It revoked the Royal Proclamation of 1763, which had aimed to assimilate the French-Canadian population under English rule. The Quebec Act was put into effect on 1 May 1775. It was passed to gain the loyalty of the French-speaking majority of the Province of Quebec. Based on recommendations from Governors James Murray and Guy Carleton, the Act guaranteed the freedom of worship and restored French property rights. However, the Act had dire consequences for Britain’s North American empire. Considered one of the five “Intolerable Acts” by the Thirteen American Colonies, the Quebec Act was one of the direct causes of the American Revolutionary War (1775–83). It was followed by the Constitutional Act in 1791.

This is the full-length entry about the Quebec Act of 1774. For a plain language summary, please see The Quebec Act, 1774 (Plain-Language Summary).

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Flin Flon

Flin Flon, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 4,940 in Manitoba, 159 in Saskatchewan (2021 census); 4,991 in Manitoba, 203 in Saskatchewan (2016 census); area 13.87 km2in Manitoba, 2.37 km2in Saskatchewan. The city of Flin Flon is situated along the Manitoba-Saskatchewan border, 743 km northwest of Winnipeg. The Saskatchewan part of Flin Flon is jointly administered by the two provinces. Flin Flon is named after the fictional character Professor Josiah Flintabbatey Flonatin (created by J.E.P. Muddock), the adventurer-explorer hero of The Sunless City (1905).

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Orillia

Orillia, Ontario, incorporated as a village in 1867, as a town in 1875 and as a city in 1969, population 33,411 (2021 census), 31,166 (2016 census). The city of Orillia is located on the shores of Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching in central Ontario. The name likely derives from the Spanish word for the bank of a river or shore of a lake, orilla. The name was given by Sir Peregrine Maitland, lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada (1818-28), who had served in Spain.