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Coureurs des bois

Coureurs des bois were itinerant, unlicenced fur traders from New France. They were known as “wood-runners” to the English on Hudson Bay and “bush-lopers” to the Anglo-Dutch of New York. Unlike voyageurs, who were licensed to transport goods to trading posts, coureurs des bois were considered outlaws of sorts because they did not have permits from colonial authorities. The independent coureurs des bois played an important role in the European exploration of the continent. They were also vital in establishing trading contacts with Indigenous peoples.

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John M Whyte

John M. (Marchant) Whyte. Evangelist, hymn writer, singer, b Paris, Canada West (Ontario), 8 Jun 1850, d Toronto 17 Mar 1927. He studied at the University of Toronto and devoted himself to evangelistic and temperance work.

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Clear Grits

Clear Grits, Upper Canadian Reformers who became discontented with the conservatism of the Baldwin-LaFontaine ministry after 1849.

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Sekani

Sekani, also known as the Tsek'ehne which means "people of the rocks or mountains," were first contacted by Alexander Mackenzie in 1793. They consisted of several family groups or bands, each of 30-40 persons, who hunted and traded along the Finlay and Parsnip tributaries of the Peace River.

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Charles Constantine

Charles Constantine, mounted policeman (b at Bradford, Yorkshire 13 Nov 1849; d at Long Beach, Calif 5 May 1912). Immigrating to Canada as a young man, Constantine was a member of the RED RIVER EXPEDITION sent against Louis Riel and the Manitoba Métis in 1870.

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Alice Amelia Chown

Alice Amelia Chown, feminist, suffragist, pacifist, socialist, writer (b at Kingston, Canada West 3 Feb 1866; d at Toronto 2 Mar 1949). She was educated at Queen's University. In 1912 she was a founding member of the Toronto Equal Franchise League.

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Central Coast Salish

Central Coast Salish peoples historically occupied and continue to reside in territories around the Lower Fraser Valley and on southeast Vancouver Island in Canada. They include the Squamish, Klallum, Halkomelem and Northern Straits peoples.

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Christadelphians

Christadelphians, Protestant movement founded in 1844 by John Thomas in Richmond, Va. It grew out of the Campbellite movement (originally associated with the CHRISTIAN CHURCH), but its adherents are nontrinitarian, deny the immortal soul doctrine and do not believe in a personal devil.

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Moses Coady

Moses Michael Coady, "M.M.," priest, teacher (b at North East Margaree, NS 3 Jan 1882; d at Antigonish, NS 28 July 1959).

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Tla-o-qui-aht (Clayoquot)

The Tla-o-qui-aht First Nation (meaning the “people from Clayoqua” or the people from “Tla-o-qui”) are a member of the Nuu-chah-nulth Tribal Council. Tla-o-qui-aht territory is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. As of September 2018, the nation has a registered population of 1,147 registered members.

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Columbia River Treaty

The Columbia River Treaty was signed by Canada and the US on 17 Jan 1961 after 15 years of preliminary investigation by the International Joint Commission, and one year (1960) of direct international negotiation. It dealt with the co-operative development of the Columbia River.

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Robert Hugh Carlin

Robert Hugh Carlin, trade unionist (b at Buckingham, Qué 10 Feb 1901; d at Kirkland Lake, Ont 1991). In 1916 he moved to COBALT, Ontario, to work in the mines.

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Nathanael Burwash

Nathanael Burwash, Methodist minister, university chancellor (b at St Andrew's, Qué 25 July 1839; d at Toronto 30 Mar 1918). Theologically moderate, he trained a generation of Methodist ministers and undergraduates to pursue enlightened research in theology and the humanities.