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Québec City, Québec, founded in 1608, population 531,902 (2016 c), 516,576 (2011 c). Québec City, the capital of the province of Québec, is located on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River where it meets the Rivière Saint-Charles. Here, the St. Lawrence narrows to a width of just over 1 km, and navigation is made difficult by a group of islands, the largest of which is Île d'Orléans. Cap-Diamant, a promontory with an elevation of 98 m, dominates the site and was used effectively as a fortification, earning Québec City the name "Gibraltar of North America." The name "Québec" is probably derived from an Algonquian word meaning "narrowing of the river."
Vaughan, ON, incorporated as a city in 1991, population 323,103 (2021 census), 306,233 (2016 census). The City of Vaughan — which includes the five constituent communities of Maple, Kleinburg, Concord, Woodbridge and part of Thornhill — is located in the York regional municipality, next to the northwest boundary of metropolitan Toronto. Traditionally an agricultural and milling community, Vaughan’s economy diversified over the latter half of the 20th century as immigration increased and the township developed into a city. Today, Vaughan is a multicultural community with a growing metropolitan core.
Chatham-Kent, ON, incorporated as a municipality in 1998, population 103,988 (2021 census), 101,647 (2016 census). The Municipality of Chatham-Kent is located on the Thames River, 80 km east of Windsor. The City of Chatham (incorporated 1895) and Kent County (created 1792) are just two of the 23 former municipalities that comprise Chatham-Kent. Others include the towns of Wallaceburg, Blenheim, Tilbury, Ridgetown and Dresden. This large municipality is bounded by lakes St. Clair and Erie (to its west and east), with the lower Thames River running down its length.
Wasaga Beach, ON, incorporated as a town in 1974, population 24,862 (2021 census), 20,675 (2016 census). The Town of Wasaga Beach is located on the shores of Georgian Bay at the mouth of the Nottawasaga River, about 40 km northwest of Barrie. Wasaga Beach is the world's longest freshwater beach. The name was derived from the Nottawasaga River.
Kamloops, BC, incorporated as a city in 1893, population 97,902 (2021 census), 90,280 (2016 census). The City of Kamloops amalgamated with North Kamloops in 1967 and in 1973 with surrounding residential areas to form the present city of Kamloops. It is located in southern British Columbia 355 km northeast of Vancouver via the Coquihalla highway. The city is situated at the confluence of the North and South Thompson rivers near their entrance into Kamloops Lake. The Kamloops Reserve 1, home to some members of the Tk'emlúps te Secwépemc First Nation, is adjacent to the city, on the northeast corner of the river junction.
Vancouver, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1886, population 631,486 (2016c), 603,502 (2011c). Vancouver is the largest city in British Columbia and the third largest census metropolitan area in Canada. The City of Vancouver lies on a peninsula in the southwest corner of the province's mainland. Two surrounding waterways — Burrard Inlet and the Strait of Georgia — provide a sheltered deep-sea port and convenient access to the Pacific Ocean, while the Fraser River offers an easy route to the rich agricultural lands of the Fraser River Lowland and the interior. Railways and highways give easy access to the interior.
Prince Albert, SK, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 37,756 (2021 census), 35,926 (2016 census). The City of Prince Albert is located on the south shore of the North Saskatchewan River near the geographical centre of the province. As Saskatchewan's "Gateway to the North," open prairie lies to the south of the city and lakes and forests to the north. Prince Albert is Saskatchewan's third largest city.
Prince Rupert, BC, incorporated as a city in 1910, population 12,300 (2021 census), 12,220 (2016 census). The City of Prince Rupert is located on Kaien Island, at the mouth of the Skeena River in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. It is Canada's wettest city, with an average of 2,619 mm of precipitation falling each year. Prince Rupert marks western end of the Yellowhead Trans-Canada Highway and, as Canada's deepest ice-free seaport, a link between the lower United States, Vancouver and Alaska (see also Iconic Highways in Canada). For these reasons it is the industrial, commercial and institutional centre for BC's Northwest Coast.
Gatineau, Quebec, incorporated as a city in 2002, population 291,041 (2021 census), 276,245 (2016 census). Gatineau was formed in 2002 following the amalgamation of the municipalities of Aylmer, Buckingham, Gatineau, Hull and Masson-Angers. The city is part of Canada’s National Capital Region. Gatineau’s city council consists of a mayor and 18 councillors elected by district.
Coquitlam, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1992, population 148,625 (2021 census), 139,284 (2016 census). The city of Coquitlam is located on the north bank of the Fraser River between Burnaby and New Westminster to the west and Port Coquitlam and Pitt Meadows to the east. Northwest and northeast Coquitlam include the lower slopes of the Eagle and Burke Mountains, with peaks up to 1,600 m high.
Lac-Mégantic, Quebec was incorporated as a town in 1907, population 5,747 (2021 census), 5,654 (2016 census). Located in Estrie in the Regional County Municipality of Le Granit, the town of Lac-Mégantic is situated approximately 95 km east of Sherbrooke on the northeast shore of Lac Mégantic (see Eastern Townships). The town is Le Granit’s centre of industry (lumber and granite), administration and commerce. On 6 July 2013, a devastating train derailment occurred in Lac-Mégantic (see Lac-Mégantic Rail Disaster; Railway Disasters).
Toronto, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1834, population 2,794,356 (2021 census), 2,731,571 (2016 census). Toronto is Ontario’s capital city, Canada’s largest municipality and the fourth largest city in North America (see also Largest Cities in Canada by Population). It is made up of the former cities of Toronto, North York, Scarborough, York and Etobicoke, and the former borough of East York. The city is home to a large immigrant population, and is a national and international hub for finance, communications and cultural life.
Powell River, BC, incorporated as a city in 2005, population 13,943 (2021 census), 13,157 (2016 census). The City of Powell River is located on the east side of the Strait of Georgia, 133 km northwest of Vancouver. It is bounded on the east by the Smith Mountain Range, Powell Lake and Haslam Lake. The city enjoys a mild climate year-round, moderated by the warm current of the strait. It takes its name from the river draining Powell Lake, which was named for Israel Wood Powell, British Columbia’s superintendent of Indian affairs in the 1880s.
Victoria, BC, incorporated as a city in 1862, population 91,867 (2021 census), 85,792 (2016 census). The capital of British Columbia, the City of Victoria is situated on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, about 100 km south of Vancouver. Occupying a peninsular site, Victoria is bordered by the Juan de Fuca and Haro straits. In addition, the Olympic Mountains lie to the south, the San Juan Islands to the east, and the fjord-like Saanich Inlet and richly forested Malahat Ridge and Sooke Hills to the west. Greater Victoria lies within the Capital Regional District (CRD), a federation comprising the following incorporated areas: the cities of Victoria, Colwood and Langford; the towns of Sidney and View Royal; and the municipalities of Saanich, Oak Bay, Esquimalt, Central Saanich, North Saanich, Sooke, Metchosin and Highlands. The CRD also includes the electoral areas of Juan de Fuca, the Southern Gulf Islands and Saltspring Island.
Loretteville, QC, is a neighbourhood in Quebec City. Incorporated as a town in 1947, Loretteville amalgamated with Quebec City in 2002. Loretteville is located about 15 km northwest of downtown Quebec City, on the banks of Rivière Saint-Charles. It is often mistaken for the Huron-Wendat or Wendake reserve, an enclave within Loretteville (see also Reserves in Quebec).
Markham, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1971, population 338,503 (2021 census), 328,966 (2016 census). Markham is located immediately northeast of Toronto. It is one of nine municipalities that make up the Regional Municipality of York. The Rouge River cuts through the municipality diagonally, connecting to Rouge National Urban Park. Initially an agricultural community, Markham is now known for its technology businesses and ethnocultural diversity.
Saint-Romuald, Quebec, population 13,435 (2019), 10,825 (2001 census). Originally incorporated in 1965, Saint-Romuald is located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River. It is across from Sillery and is situated 19 km south of Quebec City. Since 2002, Saint-Romuald is part of the city of Lévis.
Barrie, Ontario, incorporated as a city in 1959, population 147,829 (2021 census), 141,434 (2016 census). Barrie is located at the head of Kempenfelt Bay, on the western edge of Lake Simcoe. Located within Simcoe County, Barrie shares borders with the municipalities of Oro-Medonte, Springwater, Essa and Innisfil. Throughout history, the Barrie area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg peoples. The land is covered by treaties 16 and 18.