Search for ""

Displaying 1-20 of 25667 results
Article

International Workers' Day (May Day) in Canada

Recognized on the first day of May every year, International Workers’ Day, or May Day, commemorates the struggles of workers around the world through the labour movements and the political left. Although established in Canada since the beginning of the 20th century, this day is not deemed a statutory holiday, as opposed to Labour Day, celebrated on the first Monday in September.

Article

Chief

Chief is a word used to denote status or leadership upon an individual in a group, clan or family. The origin of the word is European; colonists used it to refer to the leaders of Indigenous nations during the era of contact. While different Indigenous nations have their own terms for chief, the English version of the word is still used widely to describe leaders tasked with promoting cultural and political autonomy. The term is also used by institutions and organizations that are not exclusively Indigenous to refer to heads of staff (e.g., chief of police, commander-in-chief, chief executive officer). This article explores the historical and contemporary uses of the term in the Indigenous context.

Article

Jayna Hefford

Jayna Hefford, hockey player, league executive (born 14 May 1977 in Trenton, ON). A five-time Olympian, Jayna Hefford played right wing and won the gold medal with Canada’s women’s hockey team at the 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014 Olympic Winter Games, along with a silver medal at the 1998 Olympic Winter Games. Hefford, Hayley Wickenheiser and Caroline Ouellette are the only women’s ice hockey players to win four Olympic gold medals. In addition to her Olympic success, Hefford won seven gold medals at the World Women’s Championship and is the all-time leader in the National Women’s Hockey League in goals (221), assists (179) and points (400). Since her retirement in 2015, Hefford has been active with the Canadian Women’s Hockey League as the interim commissioner and head of hockey operations and player development. In 2018, Hefford became the sixth woman to be inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame.

Editorial

Indigenous Arts & Stories

Indigenous art in Canada has a strong and varied tradition which defies general classification. Across the country the carvings, embroidery and beadwork produced by Inuit, First Nations and Métis are distinctly connected to place and community.

.

Contemporary Indigenous art in Canada has built upon this strong foundation, with diverse artists interpreting their reality in new and ever-changing media. First-wave contemporary artists like Benjamin Chee Chee, Norval Morrisseau, Carl Beam and Kananginak Pootoogook and carvers like Bill Reid and Joe David — having built on the traditions of Charles Edenshaw — have given way to Duane Linklater, Kent Monkman, Brian Jungen, Rebecca Belmore, Annie Pootoogook and many more.

.

Indigenous writers in Canada also defy classification. Poets, playwrights and novelists like Rita Joe, Eden Robinson, Tomson Highway, Thomas King, Lee Maracle, Richard Wagamese, Joseph Boyden, Michael Kusugak, Waawaate Fobister and others have brought Indigenous literature into the forefront of literary discussion in Canada. Rich imagery and inescapably political themes lay bare the pain of the past while celebrating cultural expression and moving through present struggles.

.

Like their more-established peers, the artists and writers of the Indigenous Arts & Stories program are exploring their identity through self-expression while pushing back against simple and stereotypical categorization. These writers and artists are coming of age in an era of renewed activism, celebrating Indigenous identity while creatively rejecting appropriation, colonialism, and assimilation. These ten works, five writing and five arts, are representative of the future of Indigenous writing and art in Canada, and the future is bright.

Editorial

Hoser

“Hoser” is a slang word for a Canadian of limited intelligence and little education. Almost always a white man, a hoser is, to some extent, the Canadian equivalent of American terms like “hillbilly” and “redneck” – though without the overtly racist connotations of the latter word. The term hoser entered the popular lexicon in the early 1980s, when it was popularized by Rick Moranis and Dave Thomas on the television show SCTV.

Article

Thelma Chalifoux

Thelma Julia Chalifoux, Métis, senator, entrepreneur, activist (born 8 February 1929 in Calgary, AB; died 22 September 2017 in St. Albert, AB). Chalifoux was the first Métis woman appointed to the Senate of Canada. As a senator, she was concerned with a range of issues, including Métis housing, drug company relations with the federal government, and environmental legislation. An ardent advocate for women’s and Indigenous rights, Chalifoux was involved in organizations such as the Aboriginal Women’s Business Development Corporation and the Métis Women’s Council. She was also known for her work in the protection of Métis culture, having served in the Alberta Métis Senate and Michif Cultural and Métis Resource Institute (now Michif Cultural Connections).

Editorial

Pride in Canada

The first Pride celebration held in Toronto was just three years after the Stonewall Riots in New York in June 1969, an event that sparked the gay liberation movement, and was a fairly modest affair — a picnic on the Toronto Islands.

Article

Humboldt Broncos Bus Crash

One of Canada’s most high-profile highway tragedies occurred on 6 April 2018, when a bus carrying 28 members of the Humboldt Broncos junior hockey team collided with a transport truck at a highway intersection near Tisdale, Saskatchewan. The crash killed 16 team members: 10 players and 6 staff. It also led to new truck-driver training and licensing regulations and increased awareness about the availability and use of seat belts among bus passengers.

Editorial

Canadian Prime Ministers

Along with regular elections and a widespread right to vote, a sense of humour is essential to a healthy democracy. Making fun of political leaders is one half of the recipe for truly free expression: the other is the willingness of those leaders to accept – however grudgingly – that being mocked goes with the territory.

~

By those measures, Canada is in good shape. As the legendary cartoonist Terry "Aislin" Mosher notes, “Political cartooning has been the most consistent form of public humour in Canada since the time of Confederation.”

~

As the exhibit he has assembled for Canada Day shows, none of our leaders have been exempt. The results have ranged from sometimes savage to others that simply illustrated the absurdity of a situation. John Wilson Bengough, the bane of Sir John A. Macdonald’s ruling years, was a Liberal whose inspiration flowed from his opposition to the Conservative prime minister. But most cartoonists are politically neutral and rejoice in making a target of whoever is in office. Sometimes the recipients seem to enjoy that: Sir Robert Borden kept a scrapbook of cartoons about himself.

~

But while the target is invariably the leader, the target market for barbs is other Canadians, who take humour and solace in seeing their frustrations limned. Other than Borden, the laughter may not come so easily to those being satirized. But as this exhibit shows, they can take comfort in knowing that they are in plentiful and honourable company.

~

Anthony Wilson-Smith

~

(Jean Chrétien with Beaver, Susan Dewar, Sun chain of newspapers, 2000)

Editorial

The Great War

Every nation engaging in war emerges changed and diminished in various ways. Some costs are obvious, such as the immediate human and financial toll. Some take longer to play out, such as the emotional and psychological scars on those who survive, and the lingering fallout for a society that has many of its best and brightest torn from its midst suddenly, and forever.

That has been the case for Canada, despite being on the winning side in both of the last century’s world wars. Few historians have described the consequences more ably or comprehensively than Tim Cook. The author of five related books and many essays, he is adjunct research professor at Ottawa’s Carleton University and director of research at the Canadian War Museum.

As he writes: “The Great War forever changed Canada.” A nation of fewer than eight million people in 1914 sent 630,000 of them to war; more than 66,000 died. At the same time, a war fought because of Canada’s unwavering support For Great Britain concluded with the country feeling a greater sense of independence. Every Canadian was touched in one way or another. As we see in these essays on the 100th anniversary of the start of the war, the conflict changed our country and the world forever – in ways that still resonate today.

Anthony Wilson-Smith

Publisher, The Canadian Encyclopedia

Article

Rockhead's Paradise

Rockhead’s Paradise was a jazz club in the Little Burgundy neighbourhood of Montreal. The city’s most famous Black nightclub, it was founded in 1928 by entrepreneur Rufus Rockhead. The club hosted such American jazz greats as Louis Armstrong, Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Lead Belly, Nina Simone, Fats Waller, Dizzy Gillespie and Sammy Davis Jr. It also helped launch the careers of local talents such as Oscar Peterson, Oliver Jones and Billy Georgette.

Editorial

Canadian Cinema's New Generation

In many ways, Canadian cinema is enjoying more success than ever.

With the future looking so bright, we’ve compiled a list of the top ten filmmakers that best represent the new generation of Canadian cinema. Presented in alphabetical order, this list takes into account the critical reception, awards recognition, international profile and domestic box office success achieved by each director’s films, as well as the overall oeuvre they have so far established. The list runs the gamut from emerging artists with only a couple of features to their names, to industry veterans who’ve only recently begun directing, to child-stars-turned-directorial-dynamos. Their films represent the broad appeal that Canadian cinema is capable of achieving — a mix of populist popcorn movies, auteurist art cinema, historical period pieces, DIY indie efforts and grassroots social activism.

Editorial

À la québécoise : Portraits of Exceptional Women

The Canadian Encyclopedia invites you to discover eight Québécois women with exceptional careers. Politicians, activists, social workers or accomplished artists, these women left an indelible mark on the history of Québec and Canada.This exhibit features short biographies that recount the lives and legacies of these women. The first section concentrates on women who not only dedicated their lives to advancing women’s rights, but also to improving social and economic conditions for the entire population. The second section is dedicated to those women who through their humour, brush, pen or voice overturned artistic conventions. The magnificent acrylic portraits were created by painter Marie-Josée Hudon, director of the Musée des Grands Québécois. A Historica Canada partner, this cultural and educational organization aims to promote human heritage through the display of travelling exhibits.

Article

Racial Segregation of Asian Canadians

The beginning of Chinese immigration to present-day British Columbia in the 1850s sparked a vociferous and sustained opposition from Euro-Canadian residents. This opposition intensified with the arrival of Japanese immigrants in the 1870s and South Asians in the early 1900s. To counter the supposed racial and economic dangers presented by these groups, labour leaders and others in the province successfully lobbied for legal and social restrictions on Asian employment, housing, education and civic participation in the province. These formed the basis for Asian segregation in British Columbia and Canada generally, which continued until the end of Japanese internment and the removal of all Asian voting restrictions in 1949. While it never attained the level of racial separation seen during the US South’s Jim Crow era, Asian segregation from whites in 19th and early 20th century Canada defined many aspects of everyday life in Canada.

Article

Coeur de pirate

This article is currently undergoing translation. It will be posted shortly. Please check back at a later date, or bookmark this in your saved items.

Article

Tuque

In Canada, a tuque (sometimes spelled toque or touque) refers to a warm knitted cap, traditionally made of wool and usually worn in winter.

Editorial

Not for Saps: Tree Planting in Alberta

On the list of all things quintessentially Canadian, the lumberjack ranks high. The image, real or imagined, is a part of the country’s folklore: there he stands, clad in a red and black checked jacket, one foot raised to rest on a tree stump. There is an axe lying on the ground beside him and the vastness of the yet-to-be-cut forest stretches far into the background. He was part of the legions of men and women (“lumberjills” took over in wartime) who fuelled the timber trade, one of Canada’s founding industries.

In more recent memory, however, a different figure of the forest has emerged. Tree planters — in terms of strength and endurance — may be the new lumberjacks. Over a century’s worth of shifting environmental policy means that today, maintaining Canada’s forests is as important as cutting them down. Tree planting is an essential part of this maintenance, and each year thousands of young Canadians trek through rough conditions and remote areas to replant thousands of trees.

The resource they’re helping to protect is immense. Canada has over 300 million hectares (ha) of forest, representing an area nearly double the size of Mexico, 10 per cent of the world’s forest cover and 30 per cent of the world’s boreal forest. Despite being the lead exporter of softwood lumber, newsprint and wood pulp, Canada harvests less than 0.2 per cent of its forest annually. Though seemingly small, this area amounts to about 600,000 ha, and while trees can now be chopped down with the help of machines, replanting must be done by hand, one sapling at a time.

Canada hasn’t always been so committed to reforestation. “We are recklessly destroying the timber of Canada,” wrote John A. Macdonald in 1871, “and there is scarcely a possibility of replacing it.” Despite this damning statement from the then prime minister, changes in forestry practice took time. In the 1980s, the federal government launched a campaign to step-up sustainable forest management. Included was a goal to more than double the area replanted every year. Today, reforestation is an unquestioned, permanent part of Canadian forestry practice.

In the summer of 2013, photojournalist and former planter Luc Forsyth set out to document tree planting in northern Alberta. His photos, featured here, add to the mythology of Canada’s forests. No longer is the lumberjack the country’s sole ambassador to the woods. Joining him are the soiled-yet-persistent men and women tasked with renewing them.

Editorial

The Winnipeg Falcons

They were the first Canadian team to dominate Olympic hockey — but they were certainly not the last. On 26 April 1920, the Winnipeg Falcons hockey team won the very first Olympic hockey tournament.

To mark the launch of Historica Canada’s Heritage Minute about the Winnipeg Falcons, this exhibit collects photographs, news-clippings and other memorabilia related to the historic squad.