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Nagwichoonjik Cultural Landscape

Nagwichoonjik, meaning "river flowing through a big country," is the Gwich'in name for the Mackenzie River, the longest river in Canada and the 9th longest river in the world. The river flows through the heart of the traditional homeland of the Gwichya Gwich'in, who now largely reside in  Tsiigehtchic (formerly Arctic Red River), a small community of 200 people at the confluence of the Arctic Red and Mackenzie rivers, in the northern part of the Northwest Territories. ( See also Indigenous Territory).

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Mountain Range

Mountain ranges generally belong to the same geological structure, and consist of a series of peaks and ridges surrounded by lowlands and valleys. There are many mountain ranges in Canada, including the Rocky Mountains, the St. Elias Mountains and the Laurentian Mountains.

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Cape Race

Cape Race, elevation 30-40 m, is the southeastern extremity of Newfoundland's AVALON PENINSULA. Named for its flat-topped (Portuguese, raso) cliffs, it has a barren appearance that creates a stark impression for transatlantic

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Lake Nipissing

Located in Northern Ontario, between the Ottawa River and Georgian Bay, Lake Nipissing is the third largest lake located entirely within the boundaries of Ontario. The lake spans 65 km in an east–west direction and drains into Georgian Bay via the French River. Its name derives from an Ojibwa word meaning "little water," likely a comparison to the nearby Great Lakes, which were important trade routes for the Nbisiing (Nipissing), the First Nation indigenous to this region. Fishing is a popular activity on the lake both commercially and recreationally. Unfortunately, walleye, the lake’s dominant fish species, has declined drastically since the 1980s as a result of overfishing and ecosystem changes.

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Bloodvein River

Named, perhaps, for the red granite stripes running through the bedrock near its source, the Bloodvein River begins in the vast wilderness of the Canadian Shield, 600 km northwest of Thunder Bay, Ont, and 500 km northeast of Winnipeg.

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South Nahanni River

South Nahanni River, 563 km long, flows southeast out of the Ragged Range of the Selwyn Mountains, cuts across successive spines of the Mackenzie Mountains and empties into the Liard River.

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Manitoulin Island

Manitoulin Island, 2,765 km2, the largest island in the world located in a lake, is part of an archipelago at the top of Lake Huron straddling the Ontario-Michigan border. Its northern shore encloses the North Channel, which leads to the St. Mary's River at Sault Ste Marie. An extension of the Niagara Peninsula, Manitoulin Island has an irregular, rocky shoreline and many interior lakes.

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Rideau Lakes

Rideau Lakes, 65 km2, elev 123 m, mean depth 12.3 m, is a commonly used collective name for 3 lakes: Big Rideau, Upper Rideau and Lower Rideau.

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Nelson River

The Nelson River, 2,575 km long, flows north northeast out of Playgreen Lake, at the northwest tip of Lake Winnipeg. It spills out into a number of lakes, including Cross, Sipiwesk, Split and Stevens, flowing east from the latter into Hudson Bay.

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Arctic Archipelago

Lying north of mainland Canada, the Arctic Archipelago consists of 94 major islands (greater than 130 km2) and 36,469 minor islands covering a total of 1.4 million km2. Apart from Greenland, which is almost entirely ice covered, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago forms the world's largest High Arctic land area.

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French River

The French River, 290 km long (to head of Sturgeon River), rises from Lake Nipissing in northeastern Ontario and flows 110 km west towards Georgian Bay.

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Main River

From its 4 headwater lakes (called Four Ponds - lakes are called "ponds" in Newfoundland and Labrador) in the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland and Labrador's Great Northern Peninsula, the Main River drops quickly over boulder-strewn rapids.

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Seal River

Named for the harbour seals (normally marine creatures) that are found up to 200 km upstream from Hudson Bay, Manitoba's Seal River is formed by the confluence of the North Seal (about 200 km long) and the South Seal (about 240 km long) rivers at Shethanei Lake.

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Arctic Red River

The Arctic Red River flows 499 km north-northwest from glaciers in the North Mackenzie Mountains, crossing 4 mountain ranges before it winds its way through the Mackenzie Lowlands, crossing the Arctic Circle and joining the MACKENZIE RIVER just south of the Mackenzie River Delta.

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Nass River

Nass River is 380 km long, rises in the northern interior of BC and flows generally southwest, draining approximately 20 700 km2, to reach the Pacific at Portland Inlet. Its major tributaries are the Bell-Irving, Meziadin and Cranberry rivers.