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Article

Graydon Nicholas

Graydon Nicholas, lawyer, lecturer, judge, lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick (b at Tobique, NB 1946 ). Of Maliseet descent, Graydon Nicholas made significant strides in the fields of law and public service.

Article

Elsie Gibbons

Elsie May Gibbons (née Thacker), first woman elected as mayor of a municipality in Québec (born 23 May 1903 in Ottawa, Ontario; died 28 January 2003 in Shawville, Québec). In 2015 the pioneering role of Gibbons in municipal politics was recognized by the Québec government, and in 2017 the Elsie-Gibbons award was created by the Fédération Québécoise des Municipalités.

Speech

George Brown: 1865 Speech in Favour of Confederation

George Brown played an instrumental role in establishing Confederation. As leader of the Clear Grits (forerunner of the Liberal Party) in Canada West, he set aside political differences and allied with his Conservative rivals John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1864, with whom he pitched Confederation to the Atlantic colonies at the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences. From 3 February to 13 March 1865, politicians in the Province of Canada debated the terms of Confederation, offering some of the most compelling defences and critiques of the union of British North American colonies. In the following speech, delivered before the legislature of the Province of Canada on 8 February 1865, Brown explains his reasons for supporting Confederation.

Article

Great Coalition of 1864

The politics of the Province of Canada in the early 1860s were marked by instability and deadlock. The Great Coalition of 1864 proved to be a turning point in Canadian history. It proved remarkably successful in breaking the logjam of central Canadian politics and in helping to create a new country. The coalition united Reformers and Conservatives in the cause of constitutional reform. It paved the way for the Charlottetown Conference and Confederation.  

Article

Jagmeet Singh

Jagmeet Singh “Jimmy” Dhaliwal, leader of the New Democratic Party of Canada 2017–present, MP, MPP, lawyer (born 2 January 1979 in Scarborough, ON). Jagmeet Singh served as an Ontario MPP from 2011 until 2017, when he won the leadership of the federal New Democratic Party (NDP). This made him the first racialized leader of a major national political party in Canada. He was also the first turban-wearing Sikh elected to the Ontario legislature. Singh has consistently rated higher than other federal party leaders in public opinion polls but has yet to translate that into national electoral success. He has been the Member of Parliament for Burnaby South since 2019.

Article

Hugh John Flemming

Hugh John Flemming, lumberman, politician, premier of NB (b at Peel, NB 5 Jan 1899; d at Fredericton 16 Oct 1982). Elected in 1921 as a municipal councillor for Carleton, Flemming became Conservative Member of Legislative Assembly for Carleton in 1944.

Article

Beamish Murdoch

Beamish Murdoch, lawyer, politician, author (b at Halifax 1 Aug 1800; d at Lunenburg, NS 9 Feb 1876). Already a successful lawyer when he was elected to the Nova Scotia Assembly in 1826, Murdoch lost his seat in 1830.

Article

Daniel Paul

Daniel Nicholas Paul, CM, Mi’kmaq elder, author, social justice advocate (born 5 December 1938 on Indian Brook Reserve, NS). Paul is the author of We Were Not the Savages, one of Canada’s first history books from an Indigenous perspective. He had long campaigned for the removal of Halifax’s statue to its controversial founder, Edward Cornwallis, until its removal by Halifax's city council in January 2018.

Article

James Bardin Palmer

James Bardin Palmer, lawyer, politician (b at Dublin, Ire c 1771; d at Charlottetown 3 Mar 1833). Trained as a lawyer in Ireland, Palmer immigrated to Prince Edward Island in 1802. He quickly embroiled himself in politics and became a leading member of the LOYAL ELECTORS.

Article

George Luther Hatheway

George Luther Hatheway, farmer, lumberman, politician, premier of NB (b at Musquash, NB 4 Aug 1813; d at Fredericton 5 July 1872). Elected in 1850 as Reform MLA for York and defeated in 1857, he was re-elected in 1861 and named chief commissioner of public works by S.L. TILLEY.

Article

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain, cartographer, explorer, colonial administrator, author (born circa 1567 in Brouage, France; died 25 December 1635 in Quebec City). Known as the “Father of New France,” Samuel de Champlain played a major role in establishing New France from 1603 to 1635. He is also credited with founding Quebec City in 1608. He explored the Atlantic coastline (in Acadia), the Canadian interior and the Great Lakes region. He also helped found French colonies in Acadia and at Trois-Rivières, and he established friendly relations and alliances with many First Nations, including the Montagnais, the Huron, the Odawa and the Nipissing. For many years, he was the chief person responsible for administrating the colony of New France. Champlain published four books as well as several maps of North America. His works are the only written account of New France at the beginning of the 17th century.

Article

Gordon Muir Campbell

His political career began in 1984 with his election to Vancouver City Council. Two years later, Campbell became mayor, an office he held until 1993. During that time, he also served as president of the Union of BC Municipalities and chaired the Greater Vancouver Regional District.

Article

John Reginald Birchall

John Reginald Birchall, murderer (b at Accrington, Eng 25 May 1866; d at Woodstock, Ont 14 Nov 1890). Birchall, a confidence man, gambler and wastrel, lured 2 young Englishmen, Douglas Pelly and Frederick C. Benwell, into a partnership with him to purchase a farm near Woodstock, Ont.

Article

Henry Joseph Clarke

Henry Joseph Clarke, lawyer, politician, premier of Manitoba 1872-74 (b in Donegal, Ire 7 July 1833; d on a train near Medicine Hat, Alta 13 Sept 1889). Admitted to the bar 1855, Clarke practised law in Montréal and spent several years in California and El Salvador.

Article

James Lorimer Ilsley

James Lorimer Ilsley, jurist, politician (b at Somerset, NS 3 Jan 1894; d at Halifax 14 Jan 1967). Educated at Acadia and Dalhousie, Ilsley practised law until his election to Parliament as a Liberal in 1926.

Article

John Reeves

John Reeves, judge (b probably at London, Eng c 1752/53; d there 7 Aug 1829). He studied at Oxford and was called to the bar in 1779.

Article

Governor General of Canada

Canada is a constitutional monarchy. As such, there is a clear division between the head of state and the head of government. The head of government is the prime minister, an elected political leader. The head of state is the Canadian monarch. Their duties are carried out by the governor general, who acts as the representative of the Crown — currently Elizabeth II — in Canada. (Lieutenant-Governors fulfill the same role in provincial governments.) The governor general performs a wide array of ceremonial duties. They also fulfill an important role in upholding the traditions of Parliament and other democratic institutions. Inuk leader Mary Simon was formally installed as Canada’s 30th Governor General on 26 July 2021. She is the first Indigenous person to hold Canada’s viceregal position.