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Listowel, ON, incorporated in 1867 as a village and in 1875 as a town, population 7,530 (2016 census), 6,828 (2011 census). Listowel is now part of the town of North Perth (incorporated in 1998). It is located 66 km northwest of Kitchener - Waterloo.
Thunder Bay, ON, incorporated as a city in 1970, population 107,909 (2016 census), 108,359 (2011 census). The City of Thunder Bay was created by the amalgamation of the cities of Fort William and Port Arthur and the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. It is located in northwestern Ontario on the west shore of the Lake Superior bay of the same name. Thunder Bay is situated on the traditional territory of the Anishinaabeg, and the land is covered by the Robinson-Superior Treaty. The Port of Thunder Bay is a western stop along the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Seaway. The region’s geography is dominated by the rocks, lakes and forests of the Canadian Shield. Surrounding communities depend on tourism or resource extraction, and look to Thunder Bay for a wide variety of services.
Alexandria, ON, population centre, population 2,845 (2016 census), 2,924 (2011 census). Incorporated as a town in 1903, Alexandria lost this status in 1998 as the result of municipal restructuring in Ontario. It is now part of the new township of North Glengarry (population 10,109). Alexandria is located midway on the Canadian National Railway line between Montreal and Ottawa.
Prince Rupert, BC, incorporated as a city in 1910, population 12,220 (2016 census), 12,508 (2011 census). The City of Prince Rupert is located on Kaien Island, at the mouth of the Skeena River in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia. It is Canada's wettest city, with an average of 2,619 mm of precipitation falling each year. Prince Rupert marks western end of the Yellowhead Trans-Canada Highway and, as Canada's deepest ice-free seaport, a link between the lower United States, Vancouver and Alaska. For these reasons it is the industrial, commercial and institutional centre for BC's Northwest Coast.
Fort Nelson, BC, population centre, population 3,366 (2016 census), 3,561 (2011 census). Fort Nelson is the service centre for the Northern Rockies Regional Municipality (NRRM). The NRRM is made up of a number of communities, of which Fort Nelson is the largest. Fort Nelson is located in the northeast corner of British Columbia, near the confluence of three rivers: Muskwa, Prophet and Sikanni Chief. Together these rivers combine to become the Fort Nelson River. The community is 387 km north of Fort St. John. It was named after British Admiral Horatio Nelson, famous for the Battle of Trafalgar. Incorporated as a town in 1987, Fort Nelson became a part of the NRRM in 2009.
Abbotsford, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1995, population 141,397 (2016 census), 133,497 (2011 census). The amalgamation of the district municipalities of Matsqui and Abbotsford formed the city of Abbotsford. Abbotsford is located on the south bank of the Fraser River, 76 km east of Vancouver. The city is named after Harry Braithwaite Abbott, the general superintendent for the British Columbia division of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Abbotsford is BC's fifth most populous municipality.
Revelstoke, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1899, population 7,547 (2016 census), 7,139 (2011 census). The city of Revelstoke is situated on the Columbia River between the Selkirk and Monashee mountains. It is on the Trans-Canada Highway at the western entrance to Rogers Pass and Mount Revelstoke and Glacier national parks. Revelstoke is located on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa, Sinixt, Secwepemc and Okanagan peoples. (See also Interior Salish.)
Prince George, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1915, population 74,003 (2016 census), 71,974 (2011 census). Prince George is the largest city in the northern part of the province. It is situated in the geographical centre of British Columbia at the junction of the Nechako and Fraser rivers. Prince George was founded on the traditional territory of the Lheidli T'enneh, a sub-group of the Dakelh or Carrier Dene. The Dakelh aided Alexander Mackenzie on his journey to the Pacific coast in 1793.
Sicamous, British Columbia, incorporated as a district municipality in 1989, population 2,429 (2016 census), 2,441 (2011 census). The District of Sicamous is located at the eastern end of Shuswap Lake in south-central British Columbia, 140 km east of Kamloops. It lies to the west of the Monashee Mountains on a narrow strip of land between Shuswap and Mara lakes. Its name derives from a Secwepemc First Nation word meaning “narrow” or “squeezed in the middle.” (See also Interior Salish.)
Golden, British Columbia, incorporated as a town in 1957, population 3,708 (2016 census), 3,701 (2011 census). The town of Golden is located on the Columbia River at its confluence with the Kicking Horse River. It is situated 260 km west of Calgary, Alberta, between the Purcell Mountain Range and Glacier National Park to the west, and the Rocky Mountains and Yoho National Park to the east. Golden is located on the traditional territory of the Ktunaxa and Secwepemc people (see Interior Salish).
British Columbia and Confederation
The colony of British Columbia was founded in 1858 in response to the Fraser River Gold Rush. (See also The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia.) The colony established representative government in 1864 and merged with the colony of Vancouver Island in 1866. In May 1868, Amor De Cosmos formed the Confederation League to bring responsible government to BC and to join Confederation. In September 1868, the Confederation League passed 37 resolutions outlining the terms for a union with the Dominion of Canada. The terms were passed by both the BC assembly and the federal Parliament in 1871. The colony joined Canada as the country’s sixth province on 20 July 1871. The threat of American annexation, embodied by the Alaska purchase of 1867, and the promise of a railway linking BC to the rest of Canada, were decisive factors.