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Ontario

Ontario is Canada's most populous and second-largest province. It stretches from Canada's southernmost point at Middle Island in Lake Erie in the south, to the Manitoba-Ontario border on Hudson Bay in the north, and from the banks of the St. Lawrence River in the east, to the Manitoba border in the west.

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Ontario

Ontario is a Canadian province bounded by Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay to the north, Québec to the east, and New York, the Great Lakes, Michigan and Minnesota to the south. The province was founded on parts of the traditional territories of the Ojibwa, Odawa, Potawatomi, Algonquin, Mississauga, Haudenosaunee, Neutral, Wendat, Cree, Oji-Cree and Métis. The land is now governed by 46 treaties, including the Upper Canada, Williams and Robinson treaties, as well as Treaties 3, 5 and 9. As of the 2016 census, Ontario had 13,448,494 residents, making it the most populous province or territory in Canada. Ontario was one of the founding members of Confederation, along with New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Québec, in 1867. The capital city of Ontario is Toronto. Doug Ford is the province’s current premier, leading a majority Progressive Conservative government.

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Lake Ontario

Lake Ontario is 18,960 km2 (10,000 km2 in Canada), with a drainage area of 60,030 km2, an elevation of 75 m, a mean depth of 86 m (max 244 m), length 311 km and width 85 km. It is the smallest in surface area and most easterly of the Great Lakes and eighth-largest body of fresh water in North America. The lake receives most of its water supply from the other Great Lakes through the Niagara River and discharges into the St Lawrence River through the Kingston Basin at its northeast end. Other tributaries are the Genesee, Oswego and Black rivers in New York state and the Trent River in Ontario. (See also Largest Lakes in Canada.)

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Ontario Place

Ontario Place is a 155-acre tourist attraction located on the Lake Ontario shoreline in Toronto. Operated by the Province of Ontario, the park opened on 22 May 1971. A highlight of the $29-million project was the Cinesphere, the world’s first permanent IMAX theatre. Aside from Atlantis (an event space), the marina and its music venues, the provincial government closed Ontario Place between 2012 and 2017 to save money. While many of the park’s attractions permanently closed during this period, others, such as the Cinesphere, reopened. The provincial government is working with various developers to further reimagine the space.

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Ontario Place Forum

Ontario Place Forum. Outdoor amphitheatre, part of Ontario Place, a provincially-operated recreational park opened in 1971 on three man-made islands off the Toronto waterfront. The Forum is circular in design and set in a basin created by four hills.

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Humber River (Ontario)

Encompassing 908 km2 in total, the Humber River watershed is the largest in the Toronto region. The 126-kilometre long Humber River has its headwaters in the ancient rock of the NIAGARA ESCARPMENT and the glacial hills of the Oak Ridges Moraine.

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Geography of Ontario

Ontario is divided by three of Canada’s seven physiographic regions. These three regions are the Hudson Bay Lowlands, the Canadian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. Agriculture, as well as most of the population, is concentrated in the south. Despite the tendency to divide the province into three regions, there are distinct areas within these broad classifications. Geology, climate, soil and vegetation combine to create these distinct areas.

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Royal Ontario Museum

The Royal Ontario Museum owes its existence in large part to the vision of two remarkable men. The first, Charles Trick Currelly (1876-1957), was born at Exeter Ontario and originally trained as a Methodist minister at the University of Toronto.

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Reserves in Ontario

There are 207 reserves in Ontario, held by 123 First Nations. In 2019, there were 218,451 registered Indians living in Ontario, 44 per cent of whom lived on reserves. Reserves in Ontario are held by Anishinaabe, Cree, Oji-Cree, Haudenosaunee, Delaware and Algonquin peoples. There are also a handful of First Nations in Ontario who, for a variety of reasons, do not have reserve land.

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Art Gallery of Ontario

The Art Gallery of Ontario, founded in 1900 as the Art Museum of Toronto, became the Art Gallery of Toronto in 1919 and in 1966 - reflecting an expanded role in the province - the Art Gallery of Ontario.

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Whitby

Whitby, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1855, population 128,377 (2016 census), 122,022 (2011 census). The town of Whitby is located on Lake Ontario, 56 km east of Toronto.

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Bradford West Gwillimbury

Bradford West Gwillimbury, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1991, population 35,325 (2016 census), 28,077 (2011 census). The town of Bradford West Gwillimbury consists of the former town of Bradford (incorporated in 1960), most of the lands of the former township of West Gwillimbury, and a small portion of land from the township of Tecumseth. The town is located about 60 km north of downtown Toronto.

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Scarborough

Scarborough, Ontario, former municipality, now a part of the city of Toronto. Scarborough is located on Lake Ontario and makes up the eastern part of the city. It was incorporated as a township in 1850 and as a city in 1983. In 1998, the provincial government, under the leadership of Premier Mike Harris, amalgamated six municipalities — Etobicoke, York, East York, North York, Scarborough and Toronto — to form the City of Toronto, a single municipality.

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Oakville

Oakville, Ontario, incorporated as a town in 1857, population 213,759 (2021 census), 193,832 (2016 census). Located in Halton Region, Oakville is west of Mississauga, south of Halton Hills and east of Burlington. The Township of Trafalgar, the Village of Bronte and the Town of Oakville merged in 1962, creating present-day Oakville. Throughout history, the Oakville area has been home to different Indigenous groups, namely the Neutral, Huron-Wendat, Haudenosaunee and Anishinaabeg, including the Mississauga. The land is covered by Treaty 14, also known as the Head of the Lake Purchase (see also Upper Canada Land Surrenders).