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​Aubrey Drake Graham, rapper, singer, songwriter, actor (born 24 October 1986 in Toronto, ON).


North-West Resistance

The North-West Resistance (or North-West Rebellion) was a violent, five-month insurgency against the Canadian government, fought mainly by Métis and their First Nations allies in what is now Saskatchewan and Alberta. It was caused by rising fear and insecurity among the Métis and First Nations peoples as well as the white settlers of the rapidly changing West. A series of battles and other outbreaks of violence in 1885 left hundreds of people dead, but the resisters were eventually defeated by federal troops. The result was the permanent enforcement of Canadian law in the West, the subjugation of Plains Indigenous Peoples in Canada, and the conviction and hanging of Louis Riel.


October Crisis

The October Crisis refers to a chain of events that took place in Quebec in the fall of 1970. The crisis was the culmination of a long series of terrorist attacks perpetrated by the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), a militant Quebec independence movement, between 1963 and 1970. On 5 October 1970, the FLQ kidnapped British trade commissioner James Cross in Montreal. Within the next two weeks, FLQ members also kidnapped and killed Quebec Minister of Immigration and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte. Quebec premier Robert Bourassa and Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau called for federal help to deal with the crisis. In response, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau deployed the Armed Forces and invoked the War Measures Act — the only time it has been applied during peacetime in Canadian history.


Terry Fox

After losing his right leg to cancer at age 18, Terry Fox decided to run across Canada to raise awareness and money for cancer research. With the use of a customized running prothesis, he set out from St. John’s, Newfoundland, on 12 April 1980 and covered 5,373 km in 143 days — an average of 42 km (26 miles) per day. He was forced to stop his Marathon of Hope outside Thunder Bay, Ontario, on 1 September 1980, when cancer had invaded his lungs. He died one month before his 23rd birthday.


Banking in Canada

Banking is a financial process carried out by an institution that accepts deposits, lends money and transfers funds. Canada's major banks play a vital role in the economy and today also engage in the insurance, trust and securities markets. Their business, the technology surrounding it and the regulations that govern it, have evolved continuously over the centuries.



IntroductionMusicology may be described as the pursuit of musical knowledge and insight by accurate, objective, and critical methods of fact-finding, analysis, and interpretation.


Michael Ignatieff (Profile)

We're inside Jello, a Montreal club viscous with young Liberals. They've gathered this Saturday night in mid-September for the launch of "iggynation," a series of grunge-bar events designed to bolster youth delegate support for Michael Ignatieff.



Sports have a long history in Canada, from early Indigenous games (e.g., baggataway) to more recent sports such as snowboarding and kitesurfing. Officially, Canada has two national sports: lacrosse (summer) and hockey (winter).


Not for Saps: Tree Planting in Alberta

On the list of all things quintessentially Canadian, the lumberjack ranks high. The image, real or imagined, is a part of the country’s folklore: there he stands, clad in a red and black checked jacket, one foot raised to rest on a tree stump. There is an axe lying on the ground beside him and the vastness of the yet-to-be-cut forest stretches far into the background. He was part of the legions of men and women (“lumberjills” took over in wartime) who fuelled the timber trade, one of Canada’s founding industries.

In more recent memory, however, a different figure of the forest has emerged. Tree planters — in terms of strength and endurance — may be the new lumberjacks. Over a century’s worth of shifting environmental policy means that today, maintaining Canada’s forests is as important as cutting them down. Tree planting is an essential part of this maintenance, and each year thousands of young Canadians trek through rough conditions and remote areas to replant thousands of trees.

The resource they’re helping to protect is immense. Canada has over 300 million hectares (ha) of forest, representing an area nearly double the size of Mexico, 10 per cent of the world’s forest cover and 30 per cent of the world’s boreal forest. Despite being the lead exporter of softwood lumber, newsprint and wood pulp, Canada harvests less than 0.2 per cent of its forest annually. Though seemingly small, this area amounts to about 600,000 ha, and while trees can now be chopped down with the help of machines, replanting must be done by hand, one sapling at a time.

Canada hasn’t always been so committed to reforestation. “We are recklessly destroying the timber of Canada,” wrote John A. Macdonald in 1871, “and there is scarcely a possibility of replacing it.” Despite this damning statement from the then prime minister, changes in forestry practice took time. In the 1980s, the federal government launched a campaign to step-up sustainable forest management. Included was a goal to more than double the area replanted every year. Today, reforestation is an unquestioned, permanent part of Canadian forestry practice.

In the summer of 2013, photojournalist and former planter Luc Forsyth set out to document tree planting in northern Alberta. His photos, featured here, add to the mythology of Canada’s forests. No longer is the lumberjack the country’s sole ambassador to the woods. Joining him are the soiled-yet-persistent men and women tasked with renewing them.


Undergraduates: Their Future

Behind the desk of Emöke Szathmáry hangs a century-old photograph of a native Canadian woman, her eyes fixed firmly on the camera, an infant held tightly in her arms. "To me, she symbolizes strength," says the new president of the UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA.



   Printmaking, which encompasses the production of images by any one of the numerous processes of intaglio, relief, planographic and screenprinting techniques, has a long and complex history in Canada.


Architectural History: 1914-1967

 On 3 February 1916 fire broke out on Parliament Hill in Ottawa. The following morning all that remained of the Centre Block (1859) was the famous pinnacled library and a few walls of rubble. Canada was at war with Germany, its citizens in uniform, but replacement began almost immediately.


Cirque du Soleil

Las Vegas is the last place you would expect to find art. The city rises from the Nevada desert like a pop-up cartoon of American consumerism.


Israel at 50

Gabriel Ben Yitzhak and Jamil Abu Heykal share an uneasy existence on a hilltop overlooking ancient Hebron, a town that was already old when Abraham arrived more than 35 centuries ago. The Jewish patriarch is, in religious tradition if not irrefutable fact, buried near the foot of the hill.


Music in Quebec City

Quebec City. Capital of the province of Quebec. It was founded 3 Jul 1608 by the French navigator Samuel de Champlain on the site of the Indigenous village of Stadaconé at the mouth of the St Charles River.


Claude Champagne

Education and TrainingChampagne began piano and theory at 10 with Orpha-F. Deveaux and continued with Romain-Octave Pelletier. At 14 he studied the violin with Albert Chamberland, and this became his favourite instrument.


New Democratic Party (NDP)

Founded in 1961, the New Democratic Party (NDP) is a social democratic political party that has formed the government in several provinces but never nationally. Its current leader is Jagmeet Singh. In 2011, it enjoyed an historic electoral breakthrough, becoming the Official Opposition in Parliament for the first time. Four years later, despite hopes of winning a federal election, the NDP was returned to a third-place position in the House of Commons. It slipped to fourth place in the 2019 federal election, after a resurgence from the Bloc Québécois.



In Canada, printed opinions on music and musical performance began to appear almost as early as the first newspapers (Halifax Gazette, 1752; La Gazette de Québec, 1764; La Gazette du commerce et littérature de Montréal, 1778, etc).


Opera Composition

Opera composition. Until well into the 20th century, composition of opera in Canada was sporadic, a series of events rather than the continuous development of repertoire.