Search for "indigenous families system"

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Îles de la Madeleine

Preceded by Basque fishermen, Jacques Cartier arrived at Île Brion in 1534; he named it in honour of the great French admiral. He christened the islands "Les Araynes" (arènes is a French poetry word for sand) because of the endless beaches of sand. Later French fishermen called them Îles Ramées.

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Grand River

From its source just south of Georgian Bay, the Grand River winds 266 km to Lake Erie, dropping 352 m along the way. Together with its major tributaries, the Speed, Nith, Conestogo and Eramosa rivers, it drains 6200 km2, the largest watershed in southern Ontario.

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Margaree River

The Margaree-Lake Ainslie system is the largest river system on Cape Breton Island, and one of the largest in Nova Scotia, with a total length of 120 km and a watershed of 1165 km2.

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Holland Marsh

Holland Marsh, 2900 ha of organic (muck) soil, is located near Bradford West Gwillimbury, Ont, 50 km north of Toronto.

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Cordillera

A cordillera is a major system of often parallel mountain ranges that includes the intervening plateaus, valleys and plains.

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St Marys River (Ont)

The obvious strategic value of the river was well known to the Indigenous people before Étienne Brûlé travelled the river in 1622. Samuel de Champlain included the falls on his 1632 map.

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St. Lawrence River

The St. Lawrence River is a grand river and estuary, which together with the Great Lakes forms a hydrographic system that penetrates 3,058 km into North America. The river proper, about 1,197 km long, issues from Lake Ontario, flows northeast past Montreal and Quebec City to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The route of early explorers and the main axis of New France, the St. Lawrence River figured prominently in Canada's early history, and it remains the focus of settlement for much of the province of Quebec. It is still the most important commercial waterway in Canada, as well as a source of electric power and natural beauty. (See also St Lawrence Lowland.)

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Rupert's Land

Rupert’s Land was a vast territory of northern wilderness. It represented a third of what is now Canada. From 1670 to 1870, it was the exclusive commercial domain of the Hudson’s Bay Company (HBC) and the primary trapping grounds of the fur trade. The territory was named after Prince Rupert, the HBC’s first governor. Three years after Confederation, the Government of Canada acquired Rupert’s Land from the HBC for $1.5-million. It is the largest real estate transaction (by land area) in the country’s history. The purchase of Rupert’s Land transformed Canada geographically. It changed from a modest country in the northeast of the continent into an expansive one that reached across North America. Rupert’s Land was eventually divided among Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories.

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Rivière Koksoak

Koksoak, Rivière, 874 km long (to head of Caniapiscau River), final leg of a river system that drains a vast area (133 000 km2) of northern Québec.

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St. Lawrence Seaway

The St Lawrence Seaway (Great Lakes Waterway) is the system of locks, canals and channels linking the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River with the Atlantic Ocean.

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Mackenzie Mountains

Named after Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie, they are a northern continuation, 800 km long, of the eastern system of the Rocky Mountains, composed almost entirely of folded sedimentary strata.

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North

In strictly geographic terms, the North refers to the immense hinterland of Canada that lies beyond the narrow strip of the country in which most Canadians live and work, but generally refers to the Northwest Territories, the Yukon and Nunavut.

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Rocky Mountain Trench

The Rocky Mountain Trench is a long and deep valley extending approximately 1,500 km from the Bitterroot Valley in northwest Montana through British Columbia to the Liard Plain just south of the Yukon Territory. Its predominantly flat floor is 3–20 km wide and ranges in elevation between 600 m and 1,000 m above sea level. With walls made of sedimentary, volcanic and igneous rock, the Trench is sometimes referred to as the “Valley of a Thousand Peaks” because of the towering mountain ranges on either side: the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Columbia, Omineca and Cassiar mountains to the west. Humans have relied on the rich resources provided by this distinctive landscape from pre-colonial times to the present.

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Vancouver Island

With the Haida Gwaii, Vancouver Island forms part of a partially submerged chain of the Western Cordillera and is a continuation of the US coastal mountains.

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Skeena River

Skeena River, 580 km long, rises in the northern interior of BC and flows generally SW, draining about 54 000 km2, to meet the Pacific Ocean at Chatham Sound south of Prince Rupert.

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Nechako River

The Nechako River rises in the Coast Mountains in west-central BC and flows east to form a principal tributary of the Fraser River. Because of massive damming of its headwaters, it is no longer possible to give its length or tell exactly where it used to rise.

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Great Slave Lake

Great Slave Lake is located in the Northwest Territories. It is the second largest lake entirely within Canadian borders, the fifth largest in North America, and the tenth largest in the world.