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Red River Rebellion

The Red River Rebellion (also known as the Red River Resistance) was an uprising in 1869–70 in the Red River Colony.  The uprising was sparked by the transfer of the vast territory of Rupert’s Land to the new Dominion of Canada. The colony of farmers and hunters, many of them Métis, occupied a corner of Rupert’s Land and feared for their culture and land rights under Canadian control. The Métis mounted a resistance and declared a provisional government to negotiate terms for entering Confederation. The uprising led to the creation of the province of Manitoba, and the emergence of Métis leader Louis Riel — a hero to his people and many in Quebec, but an outlaw in the eyes of the Canadian government.

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Father Lacombe Chapel

Father Lacombe Chapel, located in St. Albert, is generally considered to be the oldest surviving building in Alberta. The chapel was built in 1861 by Father Albert Lacombe, an Oblate of Mary Immaculate missionary. In the early 1860s Father Lacombe became concerned with the future of the Métis.

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Fort Providence

Fort Providence, NWT, incorporated as a hamlet in 1987, population 734 (2011c), 727 (2006c). The Hamlet of Fort Providence is located on the northeast bank of the MACKENZIE RIVER, 233 km southwest of YELLOWKNIFE.

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Fort Resolution

Fort Resolution, NWT, incorporated as a hamlet in 2010, population 474 (2011c), 484 (2006c). The Hamlet of Fort Resolution is located on the south shore of GREAT SLAVE LAKE, 153 air km south of Yellowknife.

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St. Norbert Provincial Heritage Park

St. Norbert Provincial Heritage Park is located in St. Norbert, which is now a ward of Winnipeg. Designated as a park in 1985, St. Norbert Provincial Heritage Park traces the development of the area from Indigenous use to first a French-speaking Métis settlement and then a French-Canadian agricultural community of the pre-World War I period.

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St Paul

St Paul, Alta, incorporated as a town in 1937, population 5400 (2011c), 5106 (2006c). The Town of St Paul, county seat for the County of St Paul, is located on the north shore of Upper Therien Lake, 202 km northeast of Edmonton.

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Batoche

The Métis community of Batoche is a national historic site in central Saskatchewan. It was the scene, in 1885, of the last significant battle of the North-West Rebellion.

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St Albert

St Albert, Alta, incorporated as a city in 1977, population 61 466 (2011c), 57 764 (2006c). The City of St Albert is located along the northwestern city boundary of EDMONTON.

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Wapusk National Park

Wapusk National Park (11 475.0 km2) became part of Canada's national parks system on 24 April 1996 when a federal-provincial agreement was signed providing for its establishment.

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Medicine Hat

Medicine Hat, Alberta, incorporated as a city in 1906, population 63,260 (2016 census), 60,005 (2011 census). The city of Medicine Hat is one of Alberta's largest cities. It is located on the Canadian Pacific Railway main line and the Trans-Canada Highway in the southeastern corner of the province, bisected by the South Saskatchewan River. Canada's “sunniest” city, Medicine Hat averages 330 days of sunshine per year. A council of eight councillors and a mayor govern the city.

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The Forks

The Forks is a public space where the Red and Assiniboine rivers meet in the heart of what is now the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba. It occupies the waterfront zone east of Main Street and south of the CN mainline rail bridge. The Forks has played a complex role in the history of the region and of Canada as a whole. It has been a traditional gathering place for thousands of years and was an important hub of the fur trade in the 18th and 19th centuries. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many immigrants stopped at the Forks on their journey west. It was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1974 and is home to other sites of historical and archeological significance, as well as museums, monuments, parks and theatres.

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Red River

The Red River (880 km long) begins at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers at the border between Minnesota and North Dakota. It then flows north through southern Manitoba and into Lake Winnipeg. The last 175 km of the Red River, the portion located in Manitoba, is designated as a Canadian Heritage River due to its cultural and historical value. The Red River flows through a productive agricultural region that is prone to both drought and severe flooding — the largest flood in the area in recent history, coined “the flood of the century,” occurred in 1997. The river’s basin was once the bottom of a glacial lake, Lake Agassiz, which covered the region 8,000 years ago. Currently, the Red River provides water for municipal, industrial and agricultural uses, and offers numerous summer and winter recreational opportunities, including boating, fishing (including ice fishing), camping and skating.

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Reserves in Alberta

There are 138 reserves in Alberta. Members of Alberta’s 47 First Nations live in these communities. In addition, two First Nations — Salt River and Onion Lake Cree — are based in other provinces or territories, but have reserve land in Alberta. In 2018, there were 129,962 registered Indians living in Alberta, 61 per cent of whom lived on reserves. The remainder live in other municipalities. First Nations in Alberta are typically grouped into three areas based on Treaties 6, 7 and 8 (see also Numbered Treaties). While historically the Canadian government assigned reserves to First Nations people and not Métis or Inuit, Alberta is the only province in which Métis people were given a collective land base (see Métis Settlements).

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Reserves

In 2016, 744,855 people identified as First Nations with Indian Status, 44.2 per cent of which lived on reserves. Reserves are governed by the Indian Act, and residence on a reserve is governed by band councils as well as the federal government. Under the Indian Act, reserves that serve as residences are referred to as Indian Bands. Many reserves or bands are now referred to as First Nations. Reserves may serve as spiritual and physical homelands for their people, but they are also tangible representations of colonial governance. As such they are often the focal point of activism relating to land claims, resource management, cultural appropriation, socio-economic conditions, self-governance and cultural self-determination.

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Métis Settlements

Métis Settlements located across the northern part of Alberta are comprised of the Paddle Prairie, Peavine, Gift Lake, East Prairie, Buffalo Lake, Kikino, Elizabeth and Fishing Lake settlements. These eight settlements form a constitutionally protected Métis land base in Canada.