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Prince Albert

Prince Albert, SK, incorporated as a city in 1904, population 35,926 (2016 census), 35,129 (2011 census). The City of Prince Albert is located on the south shore of the North Saskatchewan River near the geographical centre of the province. As Saskatchewan's "Gateway to the North," open prairie lies to the south of the city and lakes and forests to the north. Prince Albert is Saskatchewan's third largest city.

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Exchange Rates

The dollar became the official monetary unit of the Province of Canada on 1 January 1858 and the official currency of Canada after Confederation.

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Normandy Massacres

​One of the worst war crimes in Canadian history occurred in June 1944, during the Battle of Normandy, following the D-Day landings of the Second World War.

Editorial

The Korean War

It had ambiguous beginnings, more than 20 participating countries, and still no formal end. But some things are evident. This year, Historica Canada is commemorating this sometimes-forgotten but still-resonant period of our recent history, and Canada’s role therein. Our country sent more than 25,000 members of our military to the Korean “theatre.” More than 500 Canadians died, and another 32 became prisoners of war. For the United States, more than 33,000 members of their military died in combat, along with thousands of others dead or unaccounted for.

Yet even at the height of conflict, US president Harry S. Truman referred to it as a “police action.” This was despite the fact that his country had the largest presence of any of the coalition that joined South Korea against the Communist regime of North Korea and its supporters.

Before 1945, the Korean peninsula was for 40 years part of Japan’s empire. Following Japan’s defeat, Soviet forces moved into the north half of the Korean peninsula, and American forces settled in the south. After the United Nations created a commission to oversee elections, a vote was scheduled in 1948. But only the south was allowed a free vote, so on 15 August, the democratic Republic of Korea (South) was established, along with the separate Communist Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North). Over the next year, the Soviets and Americans withdrew uniformed forces while leaving “advisers” in place. The result, rather than peace, was civil war. For its part, North Korea had the backing of both the new Communist government of China and that of the Soviet Union.

North Korean forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950. The UN Security Council asked members to help South Korea, and more than 20 nations responded. At the Battle of Kapyong in April 1951, Canadian forces held their position against fierce enemy attacks. In appreciation, the 2nd Battalion of the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry received the United States Presidential Unit Citation. Other awards won by Canadians during the Korean conflict included nine Distinguished Service Orders, 33 Military Crosses, eight Distinguished Conduct Medals and more than 50 Military Medals. Members of the navy and the Royal Canadian Air Force also played important roles in the overall conflict, and more than 5,000 Canadian women were recruited for service.

Long before the 1953 armistice, there were attempts to end the fighting. In 1951, Syngman Rhee, leader of South Korea, and Kim Il-Sung, his North Korean counterpart, rejected pressure to make peace because each believed they could defeat the other. Two more years of fighting continued before a ceasefire agreement that included the establishment of boundaries and the release of prisoners of war. Even after fighting ended 27 July 1953, Canadian troops served in the area until August 1957. Some of their stories from 1950–57 are vividly described at thememoryproject.com. Those interviewed include army veterans Sam Carr, André Therrien, and Frank Smyth; Claude LaFrance of the RCAF; and navy veteran Peter Fane.

Today, the Korean conflict stands as the first example of a “limited” war in the 20th century. It marked the initial test of the United Nations’ collective security principle. Formally, North and South Korea are still at war — as we are reminded by recent threats by North Korea. For Canada, the price of engagement included the loss of lives and others wounded, along with the financial expense of prosecuting a war. It showed that the country was prepared to support causes it believed were right — and provided the basis for the Korean community of Canadians today, as well as the strong friendship between Canada and South Korea. For better along with worse, the war that not everyone describes that way continues to have impact.

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Beekeeping

The complex social organization, the biology and the industrious nature of honeybees (genus Apis) have long fascinated people.

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Rita Wong

Rita Wong, poet, educator (born at Calgary, Alta 1968). Rita Wong grew up in Calgary. In 1990 she graduated from the UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY with a BA.

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Imperialism

Support for the British Empire and imperialism was strong in much of Canada in the decades after Confederation. But gradually, imperialist loyalties declined and Canadians demanded and won full autonomy within the empire.

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Cambodian or Khmer Canadians

Immigration of Cambodians to Canada is relatively recent. From 1980 to 1992, Canada welcomed more than 18,000 Cambodia refugees who were fleeing the Khmer Rouge regime. They settled in Canada’s major urban areas. In the 2016 Census, 38,490 people reported being of Cambodian ethnic origin. Over the years since Cambodians began immigrating to Canada, many Cambodian Canadians have become distinguished in their fields; examples include actress Ellen Wong, journalist Chan Tep and graffiti artist FONKi.

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Influenza (Flu)

Influenza, often referred to as the flu, is a common, contagious respiratory illness. There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D. While influenza A, B and C viruses can infect humans, influenza D is believed to primarily affect animals such as cattle and pigs. Influenza C is rare in comparison to influenza A and B, which are the main sources of the “seasonal flu,” or the viruses that circulate in Canada and other countries each winter. Influenza A is also the source of flu pandemics. Canada has experienced five influenza pandemics since the late 19th century, in 1890, 1918, 1957, 1968 and 2009. In Canada, influenza causes an estimated 12,200 hospitalizations and 3,500 deaths each year.

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Slocan

Slocan, British Columbia, incorporated as a village in 1958, population 272 (2016 census), 296 (2011 census). The village of Slocan is located 70 km by road northwest of Nelson, at the south end of Slocan Lake. Slocan is an Okanagan word meaning “pierce or strike on the head,” referring to the salmon-fishing practice of the Okanagan (see Interior Salish). The community was also known as Slocan City when it was an incorporated city (1901-1958).


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Remembrance Day in Canada

Remembrance Day is a yearly memorial day that is observed in many Commonwealth countries, including Canada, to remember those who died in military service, and honour those who served in wartime. It is observed across Canada each year on 11 November — the anniversary of the Armistice agreement of 1918 that ended the First World War. On Remembrance Day, public ceremonies and church services often include the playing of “Last Post,” a reading of the fourth stanza of the poem “For the Fallen,” and two minutes of silence at 11 a.m. Wreaths are laid at local war memorials and assemblies are held in schools. The red poppy is a symbol of Remembrance Day that was inspired by the poem “In Flanders Fields,” written by Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae. Red poppy pins are sold by the Royal Canadian Legion and worn by millions of Canadians in the weeks leading up to and on 11 November.

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Kelowna

Kelowna, British Columbia, incorporated as a city in 1905, population 127,380 (2016 census), 117,312 (2011 census). The city of Kelowna is located in south-central British Columbia on the east shore of Okanagan Lake.

timeline

Korean War

The Korean War began 25 June 1950, when North Korean armed forces invaded South Korea. The war’s combat phase lasted until an armistice was signed 27 July 1953. As part of a United Nations (UN) force, 26,791 Canadian military personnel served in the Korean War, during both the combat phase and as peacekeepers afterward. After the two world wars, Korea remains Canada’s third-bloodiest overseas conflict, taking the lives of 516 Canadians and wounding more than 1,200.